understudy    /ˈʌn‧dərˌstʌd‧i/


n.候補演員; 替手 [a performer who learns the role of another in order to serve as a replacement if necessary.]

   note: 比方說,在舞台表演的主角生病了,突然不能上台,或是聲音沒了,那該怎麼辦? 這時候就有backup的演員來暫替。這個角色就是understudy。 通常使用戲場的管理者會先告知觀眾,今天的主角有事故,所以用understudy來表演。



Note: 我把underutilize跳過了





underwrite    /ˈʌn‧dərˌrɑɪt/

v. [Sign and accept liability under (an insurance policy), thus guaranteeing payment in case loss or damage occurs.]

  note: 保險公司會支付你賠償,如果你生病或者是車子被撞。這時你就可以說: My insurance company underwrites (= to sign ) the insurance policy that pays my damage.

  note: 像政府機關也可以金錢上支付美術館的費用,這也可以用underwrite. ex. Government underwrites the museum.






adj. [ not merited, or earned]

  ex. the penalty is undeserved and unjust.

  ex. Praise undeserved, is satire in disguise. (Alexander Pope)






undesirable    /ˌʌn‧dɪˈzɑɪər‧ə‧bəl/


adj. [not wanted or welcomed; disliked]

   ex. People like delicious food, but the excessive fat from it is undesirable.

   ex. The inconvenient and lengthy administrative process is undesirable.




undirected    /ˌʌn dɪˈrɛk tɪd/


adj. [Lacking direction; without a particular aim, purpose, or target]

  ex.  This undirected meeting cannot help us make a decision.

  ex.  Too many people provide ideas, but no one really knows which way is the correct one. It is a mess and undirected.





unearth   /ʌnˈɜrθ/


v. [to find something by digging in the ground ]

   note: similar word -- excavate (p.187)

   ex. Scientists unearthed the oldest dinosaur embryo fossils. ( see here )





unearthly    /ʌnˈəːθli/

adj. [Unnatural or mysterious, especially in a disturbing way]

  note: not from the world ( earth) --> mysterious

  note: Unearthly is a series of young adult urban fantasy novels by American author Cynthia Hand. The story follows a teenager named Clara, who learns that she is part angel and has a purpose to fulfill on Earth.





unenlightened   /ˌʌn.ɪnˈlaɪ.t̬ənd/


adj. [not showing understanding or knowledge]

  ex. At that time, I was nearly unenlightened about handling the relationship.

   synonym: uneducated

   note: enlighten v.啟蒙  (p.176)




unexceptionable    /ˌʌn.ɪkˈsep.ʃən.ə.bəl/


adj.無可挑剔的 [that cannot be criticized; entirely satisfactory]

  note: every thing is so good, and no one can find exceptions.

  ex. The speech is unexceptionable in every aspect; he has prepared this talk for a whole month.


  note: unexceptional ( un-exception-al ) adj.[outstanding or unusual]

  note: exception n. 除外





unfailing    /ʌnˈfeɪ‧lɪŋ/


adj. [ not failing; not giving way]

  note: not like to fail ( decrease )

  ex. Parents' love and support is unfailing.

  ex. We all love her unfailing optimism -- and she says the secret is just to forgive and forget.





unfasten    /ʌnˈfæs‧ən/

un-fast-en  note: t 沒有發音, 最後是像 "son"

v. [to make (something) loose]

    note: you will hear several times " to fasten your seat belt" during a flight.

    ex. to unfasten shoelaces.






unfeigned   /ʌnˈfeɪnd/


adj. [ not false or pretended; sincere ]

  ex. Her unfeigned descriptions of the children in the war zone touched many of us.






unflappable    /ʌnˈflæp.ə.bəl/

un-flap(state of excitement)-able

adj.臨危不亂的  [not easily upset : unusually calm in difficult situations]

  note: flap v. 鳥拍翅膀的動作 ( 有激動的意思 )

  ex. Wang may be the most unflappable Taiwanese pitcher.


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