lethal

adj.致命的 [of, pertaining to, or causing death; deadly; fatal]

  ex. a lethal weapon; a lethal dose.

 

希臘神話在地獄有一條河,名字叫lethe,喝其水了會忘記今生之事(類似孟婆湯的作用),所以leth含有「死亡」、「遺忘」、「昏睡」的概念

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

lethargy

lethe-argy(病痛 from alg-ia)

n.昏睡;無生氣 [the quality or state of being drowsy and dull, listless and unenergetic, or indifferent and lazy; apathetic or sluggish inactivity.]

 

聯想: let + hard 讓你難--->就會很想睡

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

lethargic

adj.昏睡的;無生氣的 [of, pertaining to, or affected with lethargy; drowsy; sluggish.]

  ex. Under the influence of the medicine, I have been quite lethargic lately.
  在藥物的影響下,我近來很愛睡。

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

levee

n.堤壩,堤岸 [an embankment designed to prevent the flooding of a river.]

 

字源:L levāta embankment. ptp. of L levāre to raise,字根lev-就是[「升起」的意思,另外也有當「輕;light」的意思。

 

ps. embankment [en-bank-ment]

bank除了當銀行外,也有「岸」的意思

  ex. They stood on the river bank to fish.
  他們站在河岸邊釣魚。

levee:flood=cordon:crowd
河堤防止洪水=警戒線阻擋人群

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

lever

lev(raise, light)-er

n.槓桿 [A simple machine consisting of a rigid bar pivoted on a fixed point and used to transmit force, as in raising or moving a weight at one end by pushing down on the other.]

n.手段 [A means of accomplishing; a tool]

 ex. use friendship as a lever to obtain advancement.

 

字源: L. levis, light 輕的

 

 

 

 

 

 

levity

lev(raise, light)-ity

n.輕浮 [ lightness of mind, character, or behavior; lack of appropriate seriousness or earnestness.]

  ex. To her natural levity of disposition, her enterprise brought less of terror than of pleasurable excitement.
  由於她生來性格輕浮,對於這個事業並不恐懼,只覺得是一種愉快的刺激。

 

 

 

 

 

 

levy

lev(raise, light)-y

n.徵稅 [an imposing or collecting, as of a tax, by authority or force.]

n.徵兵 [the conscription of troops.]

v.徵稅、徵兵 [to impose (a tax); to conscript (troops).]

  ex. to levy a duty on imports.

  ex. They levy an army every spring.
 
每年春天,他們徵集軍隊。

 

 

 

 

 

 

levelheaded

level(平坦的)-head-ed

adj.穩健的;明智的 [having common sense and sound judgment; sensible.]

 

ps.字的概念是頭腦清晰心情平穩的,代表是明智,可以做出好的判斷。

 

levelheaded <> foolish

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

lexicographer

lexicon-graph-er

n.詞典編纂者 [a writer, editor, or compiler of a dictionary.]

 

ps.

lexicon

n..詞典 [ a wordbook or dictionary, esp. of Greek, Latin, or Hebrew.]

ps. 你可以從lex看出端倪,他是不是長得有點像lect阿~

猜猜看第一本英文字典是在哪時候完成的

ans. Robert Cawdrey 在1604年,不過那時候只是"A Table Alphabeticall"

 

cartographer:map=lexicographer:dictionary
製圖者製地圖=編字典者編字典

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

liability

li(able)-ability

n.責任,義務 [Something for which one is liable; an obligation, responsibility, or debt.]

  ex. the liability for the accident

n.負債 [moneys owed; debts or pecuniary obligations]

  ex. Heavy liabilities forced the company into bankruptcy.

n.不利的東西 [ something disadvantageous]

  ex. Lack of education was a liability in getting a job.

liability <> asset

 

 

ps.

liable

adj. 有義務的,, 應負責的

adj. 有...傾向的 [likely or apt]

  ex. He's liable to get angry.

 

字源:AF li(er) to bind (< L ligāre) + -able

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

liaison

n.【軍】聯繫 [ An instance or a means of communication between different groups or units of an organization, especially in the armed forces.]

n. 聯繫人[One that maintains communication]

  ex. served as the President's liaison with Congress.

 

字源:F liaison, OF liaison < L ligātiōn- (s. of ligātiō) a binding.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

libel

n.誹謗(利用文字、圖畫等)  [defamation by written or printed words, pictures, or in any form other than by spoken words or gestures.]

  ex. commit libel 當罪解釋的時候,不可數

  ex. a libel on my character

v. [to publish a libel against.]

 

字源:在中世紀的英文中libel指的是" little book, formal document, esp. plaintiff's statement"小書,裡面特別是起訴人(要告人的人)的要陳述的內容。

 

review p.71

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**說壞話 ex.亂說別人沒有忠誠or是漢奸之類的

to attack the good name or reputation with falseand malicious statements

asperse v.誹謗; 灑聖水   有 spread unfavorable charges的意味
// aspersion n.
calumniate     v.誹謗   口語上的誹謗  .
// calumny n
defame v.誹謗   用 misrepresentation的方式
// defamation n.
libel v.誹謗   用文字圖畫  
malign v.誹謗   強調惡意"malicious intent"  
slander v.誹謗   口語上的誹謗 ...from scandal n.醜聞  
traduce v.誹謗   還有 humiliation的意味  
vilify v.誹謗   to deliberate,vicious defamation  

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**玷汙  ex.說別人曾經花名在外

to make sth. dirty or destory sb's reputation

besmirch  v.弄髒、玷汙  // smirch    v.弄髒、玷污
sully  v.弄髒、玷汙    

  

 

 

**有貶低意味的  ex.說別人的成功都只是幸運

to detract from the honor or luster of

to take away a part, as from quality, value, or reputation

to speak of or treat slightingly

 

detract v.詆毀、貶低    
denigrate v.詆毀、貶低    
derogate v.詆毀、貶低    
       
depreciate v.輕視、貶低    
belittle v.輕視、貶低    
decry v.輕視、貶低    
disparage v.輕視、貶低 // disparate adj.不同的

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