liberate

liber(free)-ate

v.解放,使獲自由 [to set free, as from imprisonment or bondage.]

ps. 也可以用來指從外國政府的控制下釋放、社會的經濟的束縛中釋放

ex. to liberate slaves.
去解放奴隸。

 

字源: līberātus (ptp. of līberāre to free),  = līberā- + - tus suffix

c.f.小提醒

字根 liter  == letter

字根 liber == free

 

 

 

 

liberal

liber-al

adj.開明的,不守舊的 [ Not limited to or by established, traditional, orthodox, or authoritarian attitudes, views, or dogmas]

ex. The church has become more liberal in this century.

adj.自由主義的,允許變革的, [Favoring proposals for reform, open to new ideas for progress, and tolerant of the ideas and behavior of others; broad-minded.]

adj.慷慨的,大方的 [Generous in amount; ample]

ex. He is liberal with his money.
他花錢大方。

 

ps.

liberal arts = 文科

liberal studies/education = 通識教育

 

 

 

liberality

liberal-ity

n.開明、慷慨 [The quality or state of being liberal or generous.]

ex. He was a man of extraordinary vigor and liberality of mind.
他是個生氣勃勃和思想非常開朗的人。

 

 

 

liberty

liber-ty

n.自由 [The condition of being free from restriction or control.]

n.自由權 [The right and power to act, believe, or express oneself in a manner of one's own choosing.]

ex. You may have the liberty of my room.
你可以使用我的房間。

 

ps. The Statue of Liberty= 自由女神像

字源: L lībertās , = līber free + -tās -ty

c.f.

liberal 概念偏是指 open mind. ..能廣泛、沒有限制的 接收不同的ideas

liberality是他的名詞型,指的是「廣泛、沒有限制的接收不同的ideas」

 

liberty的概念是 freedom ,它指一種情況、或者是一種權利,於此, 我們可以自由行動、自由說話

 

 

 

 

libertine

libert-ine

n.放蕩者 [a person who is morally or sexually unrestrained, esp. a dissolute man]

n.持自由思想者 [a freethinker in religious matters.]

adj. [free of moral, esp. sexual, restraint; dissolute; licentious.]

 

字源: lībert(us) freedman ( appar. by reanalysis of liber-tās liberty as libert-ās ) + - īnus -ine

它將原來的拉丁字拆法改變,原先是liber-tas, liber代表freedom, 改拆成libert-as, 然後再用libert接 ine這個字尾。

它的字義,最早是"an emancipated slave"(1382)被釋放的奴隸,在1563後才有"freethinker"的概念,then於1593開始有"dissolute or licentious person",而現在,我們大多使用這個字義--放蕩者,也有香水使用這個名字唷。

 

"電影The Libertine "

ps.Johnny Depp(THE LIBERTINE)中扮演了羅切斯特伯爵John Wilmot,(2nd Earl of Rochester),英國宮廷才子、詩人,以放蕩墮落英年早逝聞名,死後他的作品才受到各界注意與褒揚。

 

 

 

 

 

libretto

n.劇本,歌詞(ex.歌劇,音樂劇的) [ the text or words of an opera or similar extended musical composition.]

ex. an opera libretto = 歌劇的劇本

 

字源:libretto是從義大利文來的字,其中libr(libro)是book的意思,例如library圖書館,也是由這樣構成的。雖然字根的來源不同,你可以這樣想,書是用來使人自由的,藉由liber聯想出libr有當書的意思。

ps. NBA馬刺隊有個叫Oberto的球員。

 

 

 

 

license

n.許可 [Official or legal permission to do or own a specified thing.]

ex. 比方說汽車駕照, driving license.

ex. a license for the sale of alcoholic drinks

n. 放縱 [ Lack of due restraint; excessive freedom]

ps.有放縱字義的原因是由於"特許"的概念來的

ex. When liberty becomes license, dictatorship is near.
當自由變成了放縱,專制就靠近了。

 

ps. 還有

n.文藝,美術作品的)破格 [intentional deviation from rule, convention, or fact, as for the sake of literary or artistic effect]

ex. poetic license. = 詩的破格

 

字源: licentia authorization, = licent- ( s. of licēns, prp. of licēre to be allowed ) + -ia -ia

 

 

 

 

licentious

licent(to be allowed)-ious

adj.放蕩的 [Lacking moral discipline or ignoring legal restraint, especially in sexual conduct .]

ex. Though great artists have been licentious, licence does not necessarily result in great art.
偉大的藝術家們雖然曾經都是放蕩形骸的,但放蕩形骸未必導致偉大的藝術。

adj. [Having no regard for accepted rules or standards.]

 

licentious:dissoluteness

 

 

 

 

lien

n.抵押權,留置權 (扣押他人的財產來保障債務還清) [ Law . the legal claim of one person upon the property of another person to secure the payment of a debt or the satisfaction of an obligation.]

ex. The court granted me a lien on my debtor's property.
法庭授予我對我債務人財產的留置權。

 

聯想:

1. Mathew Lien (馬修連恩)的財產被人抵押了

2.  財產被躺在別人的地方,被抵押了

字源: L ligāmen tie, bandage, = lig ā(re) to tie + -men n. suffix of result /* 看看就好*/

 

lien:claim 扣押權是一種權利

 

 

 

 

 

ligneous

lign(wood)-eous

adj.木質的[of the nature of or resembling wood; woody.]

ex. ligneous tissue
木質組織

c.f.

lign-eous  adj.木質的

ign-eous  adj.火成的  [樹幹 l 被燒掉的就是火成的...]

 

 

 

liken

like-en

v.比擬 [To see, mention, or show as similar]

ex. life has often been likened to a journey.

ps. compare A to B; liken A to B   把A比喻B

ex. I can only compare the experience to falling in love .

= I can only liken the experience to falling in love .

 

liken:similarity=discriminate:difference
有相似性才可以相比=有差別才可以區分

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