latitude

n.緯度 [The angular distance north or south of the earth's equator, measured in degrees along a meridian(子午線), as on a map or globe.]

n.自由(言語,行動等的) [Freedom from normal restraints, limitations, or regulations.]

  ex. The boss gave me considerable latitude in this matter.
  在處理這件事上老闆給了我很大自由

 

字源:L lātitūdō width= lāt(us) wide + i + -tūdō -tude

 

ps.1 Latitde 66°N ---北緯66度 許茹芸的專輯

ps.2 緯度(latitude)是指某點與地球球心的連線和地球赤道面所成的線面角,其數值在0至90度之間。位於赤道以北的點的緯度叫北緯,記為N,位於赤道以南的點的緯度稱南緯,記為S。

ps.3 經度(longitude)是地球上一個地點離一根被稱為本初子午線的南北方向走線以東或以西的度數。本初子午線的經度是0°,地球上其它地點的經度是向東到180°或向西到180°。不像緯度有赤道作為自然的起點,經度沒有自然的起點,做為本初子午線的那條線是人選出來的。英國的製圖學家使用經過倫敦格林維治天文台的子午線作為起點

 

latitude <> tightly restrained

 

 

 

 

 

 

lattice

n.格子 [An open framework made of strips of metal, wood, or similar material overlapped or overlaid in a regular, usually crisscross pattern.]

 

ps.1 latticework

ps.2 在物理中,crystal lattice = 晶格

 

 

 

 

laud

v.讚美 [to praise; extol.]

  ex. I will laud my enemies and they will become friends; I will encourage my friends and they will become brothers.

n. [a song or hymn of praise.]

 

字源:  L laudāre to praise 

 

review

applaud v.鼓掌歡迎; 喝彩

 

 

 

 

 

lava

n.熔岩 [ the molten, fluid rock that issues from a volcano or volcanic vent.]

n. [The rock formed by the cooling and solidifying of molten rock]

 

 

字源:lava當作熔岩的意思是那不勒斯人所造出來的,他們借用原先義大利文 lava "a stream caused suddenly by rain"來變作作他們方言,但後來lava當作熔岩的意思變成了standard Italian。

volcano:lava=geyser:water

 

 

 

 

lave

lav(wash)-e

v.洗;沐浴  [to wash; bathe.]

 

字源: L. lavāre to wash

 

ps. lavatory n.洗手間

----------------------------------------

字根 lav  luv   == wash

            lut

 

lave    v.沖洗

lava    n.熔岩

 

lavatory  n.廁所

 

dilute  v.稀釋

 

[特]deluge  n.大洪水

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lavish

lav(wash)-ish

adj.闊氣的 [ expended, bestowed, occurring in profusion, using or giving in great amounts]

  ex. lavish spending.

  ex. a lavish wedding.

v.揮霍,濫施[to expend or give in great amounts or without limit]

  ex. to lavish time and money on pets
  把大量時間和金錢花在寵物身上

 

字源:late ME lavas profusion (n.), profuse (adj.) < MF lavasse downpour of rain, deriv. of laver to wash < L lavāre

 

 

 

 

laxative

lax(loosen)-ative   [ex. relax]

n.瀉藥 [a medicine or agent for relieving constipation.]

  ex. The laxative can gently stimulate evacuation of the bowels.

adj.瀉藥的 [of, pertaining to, or constituting a laxative; purgative.]

 

ps. constipated [con-stip(crowd)-ated] adj.便秘的

 

 

 

 

leak

n.漏洞 [an unintended hole, crack, or the like, through which liquid, gas, light, etc., enters or escapes]

  ex. A small leak will sink a great ship.
  一個小漏洞可能弄沉一艘大輪船。

v.滲漏 [to let a liquid, gas, light, etc., enter or escape, as through an unintended hole or crack]

ps.

leak-proof

adj. 防漏的 [designed to prevent leaking]

  ex. a leakproof bottle

 

 

 

 

leakage

leak-age

n.漏 [ an act of leaking; leak.]

n.漏損物 [something that leaks in or out.]

 

seal:leakage
密封防止洩漏

 

 

 

lease

n.租約 [ A contract granting use or occupation of property during a specified period in exchange for a specified rent.]

  ex. a lease of land

  ex. My lease will expire on September 30th of this year.
  我的租約今年九月三十日到期

v.出租 [=let, To grant use or occupation of under the terms of a contract]

 

 

字源:Middle English les, from Anglo-Norman, from lesser, to lease, variant of Old French laissier, to let go, from Latin laxāre, to loosen,

簡單的說,lease的字從lax生出來。lax是to loosen的意思,概念就是loosen apart from you (概念就函在古法文laissier to let go),之後就演變出租的意思。

 

c.f.

easel n.畫架    (l在最後的面的,是為了要支撐地面用的)

lease n.租約

 

review easel的字源

"A painter's ass"

從荷蘭語過來的 Du. ezel,ezel指的是驢子

因為要將貨物拿上驢子的動作跟畫家把帆布(canvas)拿上畫架的動作類似

因此畫架就像是 畫家的驢子

是故這個字從驢子的字義後來轉化到畫架的字義了

 

 

 

 

leaven

n.酵母,酵素 [a substance, as yeast or baking powder, that causes fermentation and expansion of dough or batter.]

n. [an element that produces an altering or transforming influence]

  ex. the leaven of reform working in their minds;
  變革的媒介在他們的頭腦中運作

v.使發酵 [to add leaven to (dough or batter) and cause to rise.]

v. [ to permeate with an altering or transforming element.]

 

音:leaven 讀起來像 leaving,麵包膨脹了,就是他開始離開了

字源: L. levāmen, = L. levā(re) to raise + -men deverbal n. suffix

ps. 舊約中說不能吃有酵餅,因為常把酵比喻為罪惡。某些猶太人認為當初他們的老祖宗為了逃避法老的追兵,匆匆忙忙,沒有時間讓麵糰發酵當作乾糧,所能帶的只有尚未發酵的麵粉製品,於是無酵餅成為民族逃難記憶的一部分。

 

 

 

 

 

lectern

lect(read)-ern   [ex. lecture]

n.讀經臺 [a reading desk in a church on which the Bible rests and from which the lessons are read during the church service]

  ps. lectern是一種給人放書(聖經)、演講稿的講台,檯面會有點斜斜的那種。

n.講台  [A stand that serves as a support for the notes or books of a speaker.]

 

c.f.

podium

pod(foot)-ium [給腳站的地方]

n.講臺 [ a small platform for the conductor of an orchestra, for a public speaker, etc.]

  ps. 像給管絃樂的指揮者站的那個小檯子,就叫podium,他是一個小平台。或是賽車手頒獎時,那個小檯子,也可以叫podium。

 

 

pulpit

n.講道壇 [a platform or raised structure in a church, from which the sermon is delivered or the service is conducted.]

  ps.這個在台灣應該很少能看到,看圖解釋比較快...

 

L. pulpit 就是platform的意思

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