stratum    /stretəm/



  ex. The poorest stratum worries about not having enough money, while the richest stratum worries about having too much money.

  ex. The dinosaurs were buried in these strata, then turned into the form of coal or oil million years latter.

  note: 複數型 strata






stratify    /ˋstrætəˏfaɪ/


v.使分層 [to arrange something in layers or strata]

  ex. The U.S. education system usually uses ABCD grade system to stratify students' academic performance.







stray    /stre/

v.走失 [move away from one's group, proper place, etc with no fixed destination or purpose]

  ex. When traveling, my wife was worrying our kid could stray away from her sight and get into dangerous situations. So we always held my son's hand.

 ex. Jessica can seldom concentrate on discussing one topic and usually strays from the main points.

 note: astray  adv/adj. 迷路地 (p.41)

 note: ramble v.漫遊,閒逛 (p.391)

  ex. After finishing dinner, dad and mom like to ramble around the long river bank.







streak    /strik/

n.條紋, 線條 [long thin mark, line or band of a different substance or color from its surroundings]

  note: 我們學過了許多跟線條有關的字,例如strand, string, thread, fiber, stripe, strap,(see cf. at 337)等等,這邊的streak使指與整體不同顏色的條紋,他強調的是顏色

  ex. rock streak,用岩石在白板上畫的一橫,可以用來觀察岩石的粉末。

  ex. A meteoroid leaves a bright streak on the sky, and people name this kind of streak as meteor.


  streak 有一些後來衍生出的字義,比方說因為顏色與周圍不同,所以streak也指個性,因為每個人個性就像是不同顏色般。

  還有在比賽時,winning streak,是指連勝,因為streak有長條狀的意思,losing streak則是指連敗。像是NBA新聞中也會常看到,Kings snapped Miami's six-game winning streak.








striated    /straɪetɪd/

adj.有條紋的 [ marked with stripes, lines or furrows ]

  note: striated是指被挖出來而有條紋狀的,像是你在做黏土雕刻時,在上面刻出一橫一橫的,那就可以用striated來形容它。另外很常用的例子是冰河刮過岩璧,會在表上面留下溝槽(groove),你就可以說striated surface.

 在生理學上,橫紋肌 (striated muscle),2013年新聞上一直報橫紋肌溶解。


  note: striate v. 留下長條 ...這個字不是很常用









stream    /strim/


  note:指小溪的單字還有 small river, rivulet, brook, creek. Stream 是在強調一直不斷流動著的形象。所以他常用來指一連串的什麼東東。在現今,網路傳輸data也像是個小河流一樣,所以你連上youtube,他會提供你 video streaming的服務,還有像是KKBOX 就也是提供 online music streaming 的服務.

n. 一串連續的東西

  ex. a stream of sth.

  ex. a stream of live shows will start at 8PM and it will reach the culmination when Taipei 101 setting off firework.

  ex. My friend gives me a stream of fresh ideas to start the SOP.

v. 流出

  ex. American people are crazy about Football game and they will come to my university to watch a match from very very far places. So every time when the crowds stream out the stadium, the traffic is jammed and horribly slow.









stretch    /strɛtʃ/

v.拉長、伸展 [make (sth) longer, wider or tighter by pulling]

  note: stretch最基本核心的概念就是拉長或伸展的動作,比方說把繩子拉緊,to stretch a rope。在運動時我們需要熱身,熱身中就有很多關於stretch的動作。衍生字義上,stretch也可以指綿延,因為你拉長了某個東西那那邊去,就像是綿延了到那邊去。

  ex. He stretches his legs while we taking a break at a gas station after a 5 hour drive. That is, he is walking and extends his legs and arms to make the muscles relaxed.

  ex. The beautiful coral reef near Australia, Great Barrier Reef, is the largest one, stretching for 1,553 miles in length.

  ex. The WiFi-service of our school has a 300-meter stretch. So I can connect to it even at home. (當名詞的用法)









strew    /struːn/

v.散播 [ to spread by scattering, to cover by or as if by scattering something]

 note: 最近俄羅斯炸彈攻擊的新聞中,記者就用到strew這個字。寫到爆炸後,死者的身體被散亂地分佈在地面上, bodies were strewn on the ground...

 note: 過去式strewed, 過去分詞strewed or strewn

 ex. My cat likes going into the dresser and then strews my clothes on the carpet just for fun...

 c.f straw /strɔ/ (麥稈,吸管)









stricture    /ˋstrɪktʃɚ/


n.限制 [a restriction.]

   ex. Although 60 percent of New Yorkers supported the smoking ban when it passed, the same percentage opposed soda strictures. (Scientific American Dec 10, 2013)

  note: 在醫學上還有指身體某管狀部分異常的狹窄

n. 嚴苛的評語 [a remark or comment, especially an adverse criticism]

  ex. We tend to give strictures to our colleagues or to blame them when the project fails. Such strictures like " You don't pay enough efforts to our project, " or "You should not do that by this way. You should follow my opinion."  are not able to help you overcome the difficulties.









stride    /straɪd/

v.大步行走 [walk with long steps]

n. 當名詞就是指一大步

  ex. "Come on, go to wash your hands", mom says. However, even there is only 3 strides from the couch to kitchen. She still doesn't want to move at all.

  ex. With every stride, runners hit the ground with up to five times their body-weight.


n. 快速發展

  note: 因為走的大步,所以 make a stride 引伸成指『快速發展』

  ex. Semiconductor industries have made an enormous stride, so that we can enjoy many advanced technology with fairly low price.


 記: drive and stride:

 Men like driving and watching a lady strides along the street.








strident    /ˋstraɪdnt/

adj.指聲音粗厲的, 尖銳刺耳的 [characterized by harsh, insistent, and discordant sound]

  note: 一個方便的記法是想像穿高跟鞋在大步走stride, 鞋跟產生的聲音很strident,因為聽起來很尖銳、不舒服。

  ex. "We Need the Truth",  the woman raises her voice, which becomes more and more strident and near almost crying. Her son died in a hospital after an expected easy surgery.






strife    /straɪf/

n.衝突 [state of conflict; angry or violent disagreement]

  note: a strife is a fancy way to say a fight. 這個字比較正式點,但還是在新聞上會常出現唷。

  ex. Some analysts say Egypt faces a protracted spell of attacks by Islamist radicals as well as eruptions of civil strife. (Reuters Dec 28, 2013)

  ex. For the 100 billion inheritance, there is strife among the family members all the day.

  ex. Love cannot guarantees no strife in a marriage. Sometimes money is a major cause of strife in many marriages.


strive 與 strife 其實是同源的唷,






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