solicit & solicitude & solicitous


v. [to seek for or ask for sth by entreaty(懇求), earnest or respectful request, etc.]

  ex. to solicit the committee for funds.

  ex. Most likely, the professors will leave the universities when they can no longer solicit research dollars.


v.拉客 [ (of a prostitute) make a sexual offer (to sb), esp in a public place ]










n.牽掛 [an attitude of earnest concern or attention]

   ex. He is full of tender solicitude towards my sister.

   ex. The yearning solicitude in the woman's eyes, the infinite pity on her face, chained him and drove all other thoughts away.


   etymology:uneasiness of mind,本來的字根擁有arise的意思。from the Latin roots sollus "entire" and citus "set in motion"









adj. [showing anxious concern for someone or something. ]

  ex. He took her hand in greeting and asked solicitously how everything was.

  ex. She is solicitous about colleagues, concerned about friends and worried about the whole world.









v. [to make or become solid , hard, or strong]

  ps. 由液體或氣體變成固態

  ex. The lava would have taken two weeks to solidify.

  ex. a plan can solidify, a relationship can solidify, an opinion can solidify...











n.團結一致 wiki: [ Solidarity is unity (as of a group or class) that produces or is based on community of interests, objectives, and standards. It refers to the ties in a society that bind people together as one. ]

   ps. 指的是使整個群眾凝聚成一的那種團結。常見的有遊行抗議時的那種團結。是個在社會學中的名詞。

   ex. Supporters want to march tomorrow to show solidarity with their leaders.

   ex. International solidarity is "not an act of charity but an act of unity between allies fighting on different terrains toward the same objectives." - Samora Machel









 solitary & solitude



adj.單獨的 [alone; without companions]

  ex. He is a shy, pleasant, solitary man.

  ps. Solitary confinement is a special form of imprisonment in which a prisoner is isolated from any human contact, though often with the exception of members of prison staff.










n. [the state of being alone, especially when it is peaceful and pleasant. ]

  ps. ,像是經過了忙碌上班的一天,在公園中坐落的的閒暇寧靜感。

  ex. Imagine long golden beaches where you can wander in solitude.

  ex. solitude and introversion is related to creativity.


solitude   比較像遠離人群,而有私人空間的孤獨
isolation  特意遠離,像籃球中的isolation戰術,或者是流浪到孤島上了 (p.279)
seclusion  從人群中退隱,過著像退休的生活。 (p.595..在很後面)










adj.獨自的 [by oneself, without a companion ]

  ex. to fly solo across the Atlantic(大西洋).

n.獨奏  [piece of music, dance, entertainment, etc performed by only one person]

  ex. a guitar solo

  ex. solo home run. 陽春全壘打


 guitar solo by Estas Tonne












  ex. these tablets are soluble (or solvent) in water.

  ps. 水這邊也可以說成是solution or solvent,溶劑

  ps. dissolve v.溶解


adj.可以解決的 [that can be solved or explained; solvable ]

  ex. This differential equation is soluble ( or solvable).

  ps. insoluble (p.268)










adj.有償付能力的 [having enough money to pay one's debts ]

  ps. 簡單的說就是你手頭上有足夠的錢。

  ex. This is all about getting Detroit strong, viable and solvent.  (New York Times Jul 8, 2013) 在談論 Detroit city要破產的問題。


adj.有溶解力的  [ that can dissolve another substance ]


n.溶劑 [ substance that can dissolve another substance ]

  <> precipitant n.沉澱劑 (使溶解的物質,沈澱出來)











adj. [of the body; bodily]

  syn: corporal (p.117)

  ex. . In medicine, somatic illness is bodily, not mental illness.

  ps. 在生物學上的名詞:somatic cell, 用來區別生殖細胞 germ cell.

  <> nonphysical











adj. [very dark or gloomy or mentally depressed or solemn. ]

  ex. The somber  crowd then moves on to several other stations to complete additional   sets of prayers.

  <> cherubic (p. 83)















  一般的sonata layout為:

第一樂章   sonata-allegro form, 奏鳴曲式的快板樂章
    具有exposition, development, and recapitulation.
第二樂章   與第一樂章形成對比的慢板
第三樂章   快速的小步舞曲(Minuet)或詼諧曲(Scherzo)
第四樂章   sonata–rondo form, 奏鳴曲型式的輪旋曲,a finale in faster tempo.


  etymology: Sonata由字根上去解釋就是指發出聲音的什麼東東,而後在義大利文中這個字指的是樂器演奏的一段音樂,有別於cantata, ps. cant是唱, to sing的意思,用的是人聲。


Mozart - Piano Sonata No. 8 in A minor, K. 310


Beethoven - Moonlight Sonata  (結構較創新的sonata)

from wiki:貝多芬自己在該作品(以及前一首作品)的樂譜上都使用了「幻想曲一般」(義大利文:Quasi una fantasia)的字樣。「月光」的名字來源於音樂評論家路德維希‧萊爾斯塔勃的一篇評論,他將該曲第一樂章的朦朧氣氛與琉森湖夜晚的月色相比










son(=sound)-et(小, small)



  像是sonnet 的 rhyme scheme, a-b-a-b, c-d-c-d, e-f-e-f, g-g

  在一行中重音,沒重音的要有 U_U_U_U_ ....相隔的規範

  在內容上,sonnet主要是用來讚美用的,像是讚美情人之類的,所以前8句都以讚美為主, 9~12句有個小轉換,13, 14句為個conclusion.


How to write a sonnet







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