n. 反芻動物

  ps. from wiki: A ruminant is a mammal that digests plant-based food by initially softening it within the animal's first compartment of the stomach, principally through bacterial actions, then regurgitating the semi-digested mass, now known as cud, and chewing it again. The process of rechewing the cud to further break down plant matter and stimulate digestion is called "ruminating.

adj. [meditating or contemplating in a slow quiet way]

  ps. to turn over in the mind














v. [to become wrinkled or crumpled]

n. [an uneven fold or crease]



ps. crumple p.124

 rumple    v.弄皺     //    rumble   v.發出低沉隆隆聲 amble

crumple    v.弄皺     [多一個c意思還是一樣喔]



crumb      n.(餅乾、麵包)屑

crumble    v.弄碎成屑       [make into crumbs]










n. [any sturdy stick, bar, or rod, esp. a rounded one, used as a crossbar, support, etc.]

  ps. ring: ring, rang, or rung












adj. [of, consisting of, characterized by, or set down in runes]

adj. [mystical; obscure]



  ps.1 relic  n.遺蹟 (p.402 ex. Temple of the Tooth Relic)

  ps.2  rune



The Elder Futhark Pronunciation From Rune Song












v. [to burst or break]

n. [breaking apart or bursting]

  ps. A rupture is a severe injury in which an internal part of your body tears or bursts open, especially the part between the bowels and the abdomen.

  ex. the risk of rupture East-West relations














adj. [Rural places are far away from large towns or cities.]

  ps.1 urban, and suburban.

  ps.2 rustic (下一個字)













adj. [You can use rustic to describe things or people that you approve of because they are simple or unsophisticated in a way that is typical of the countryside.]

  ps. rust n.鏽  v.生鏽 (rusty nail)


 Making Rustic Furniture The Basics

Rustic Furniture 2.jpgRustic Furniture 1.jpg










n. [an action intended to mislead, deceive, or trick]

  ex. use a ruse.



GameSpot Trailers - R.U.S.E.











n. [mercilessness characterized by a lack of pity]



 ps. Babe Ruth


Babe Ruth's 60th Home Run - Sept. 30,1927




Braveheart Trailer - 1995











n. [damage done secretly to prevent an enemy, a competitor, etc succeeding]

v. [secretly damage, destroy or spoil]

  ex. The main pipeline supplying water was sabotaged by rebels.


  ps. sabot = wooden shoe


etymology: from wiki

(1) That it derives from the Netherlands in the 15th century when workers would throw their sabots (wooden shoes) into the wooden gears of the textile looms to break the cogs, fearing the automated machines would render the human workers obsolete.

(2) That it derives from the French sabot (a wooden shoe or clog) via its derivative saboter (to knock with the foot, or work carelessly).

(3) That it derives from the late 19th-century French slang use of the word sabot to describe an unskilled worker, so called due to their wooden clogs or sabots; sabotage was used to describe the poor quality work which such workers turned out.











n. [one that practices sabotage]











糖精(Saccharin)用作甜味劑,但不含營養。它為白色結晶性粉末,難溶於水,,其甜度為蔗糖之300~500倍,不含卡路里,吃起來會有輕微的苦味和金屬味殘留在舌頭上。其鈉鹽易溶於水。LD50為5000~8000 mg/kg;每日攝取安全容許量(ADI)為0~2.5 mg/kg。糖精可由鄰磺酸基苯甲酸與氨反應製得。主要用於食品工業,可用於牙膏、香菸及化妝品中。



Saccharin: A Sweet Sugar or Toxic Danger?










adj. [connected with or dedicated to God or a god; connected with religion; regarded with great respect or reverence]

  ex. Her marriage is sacred to her. 她認為自己的婚姻至高無上.



 Sacred Geometry 101E: Metatron's Cube











n. [offering of sth valuable, often a slaughtered animal, to a god]

  ex. Her parents made many sacrifices so that she could go to university. 她父母為她上大學在多方面作了犧牲

v. [make a sacrifice]







字根 sacr sanct == holy


sacred   adj.神聖的 (The Koran is the sacred book of Islam.)
sacrifice   n/v.犧牲、奉獻 (Parents often make sacrifices for their children.)
sacrilege   n.褻瀆聖物
sanctify   v.使神聖化 (sanctify your hearts.)
sanction   n.認可、批准 (Official sanction has not yet been given.)
[特] saint   n.聖徒





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