v. [to become destroyed or ruined : cease to exist ]

ex. an age of elegance that has forever perished.

ex. peril and perish


字源(看看就好):from per-  "through, completely, to destruction" + ire  "to go"







adj. [causing destruction, ruin, extreme discomfort, or death]

ex.lost in the perishing cold.

adj. informal  (of weather, etc) extremely cold







perjury /pɜrdʒərɪ/

per(away)-jur(to swear)-y

n.偽誓, 偽證 [the voluntary violation of an oath or vow either by swearing to what is untrue or by omission to do what has been promised under oath]


from wiki

Perjury, also known as forswearing, lying under oath or lying on oath, is the willful act of swearing a false oath or affirmation to tell the truth, whether spoken or in writing, concerning matters material to a judicial proceeding. That is, the witness falsely promises to tell the truth about matters which affect the outcome of the case.






per(away)-jur(to swear)-e

v. [to render (oneself) guilty of swearing falsely or of willfully making a false statement under oath or solemn affirmation]

ex. The witness perjured herself when she denied knowing the defendant.



ps. 關於jur = to swear,我們在p.106有整理

ex. conjure v.唸咒召喚(神靈、魔鬼等) v.祈求; 懇求










adj. [briskly self-assured]


from perk v.[ to thrust up the head, stretch out the neck, or carry the body in a bold or insolent manner]








per(thoroughly)-pet(seek, aim at)-u-al

adj. [continuing or enduring forever; everlasting.]

ex.the perpetual snow of the Arctic






v.使永存 [to make perpetual or cause to last indefinitely]







per-man( from manere  "stay" )-ent

adj. [existing or intended to exist for an indefinite period]

ex. permanent magnet






per-man( from manere  "stay" )-ence

n. [the condition or quality of being permanent;  perpetual or continued existence.]








adj. [capable of being permeated]


ps. permeability

\mathbf{B}=\mu \mathbf{H}

\mathbf{B} \ = \ \mu_0(\mathbf{H} + \mathbf{M}) \ = \ \mu_0(1+\chi_v) \mathbf{H} \ = \ \mu \mathbf{H}





v. [to spread or diffuse through]

ex. a room permeated with tobacco smoke






n. [authorization granted to do something; formal consent]

ex. You have my permission to leave.







adj.縱容的 [habitually or characteristically accepting or tolerant of something, as social behavior or linguistic usage, that others might disapprove or forbid.]


In sense of "tolerant, liberal" it is first recorded 1956; by 1966 it had definite overtones of sexual freedom.


Permissive Style of Parenting








per-nic( from nex; death )-ious

adj.有害的 [pernicious implies irreparable harm done through evil or insidious corrupting or undermining]

ex. the claim that pornography has a pernicious effect on society.


ps. nox(harm)-i-ous applies to what is both offensive and injurious to the health of a body or mind

ex.noxious chemical fumes.


ps. necropolis


a cemetery, especially one of large size and usually of an ancient city.









per-pend(to hang)-icular

adj. [vertical; straight up and down; upright.]







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