inhibit

in-hibit

v.抑制 [ to restrain, hinder, arrest, or check (an action, impulse, etc.).]

  ex. inhibit desires

v.禁止 [ to prohibit; forbid.]

 

ps. 抑制(restrain, hinder) 與 禁止(prohibit, forbid)的概念是不一樣的唷

抑制是指你 slow down一件事情.

禁止是指你 prevent other people from doning 一件事.

雖然inhibit同時有這兩種意思,但它較多場合下是指「抑制」

 

下面三組字都來字於 L. hibere = hold, have

inhibit  from L. inhibēre "to restrain" in-hibēre( have, hold)

exhibit

prohibit

 

 

 

inhibitor

n.抑制劑 [a person or thing that inhibits.]

n. [Chemistry. a substance that decreases the rate of or stops completely a chemical reaction.]

  

  ps. inhibitor <> catalyst

 

 

 

 

inhumane

in-humane

adj.無人情味的,不人道的, 殘忍的 [not humane]

  ex. She is an inhumane judge.
  她是個冷酷的法官。

 

ps. humane = human +e

 

 

 

 

inimical

inim(enemy)-ical

adj.有害的,不利的 [Injurious or harmful in effect; adverse]

  ex. Bad habits are inimical to good health.

adj.敵意的 [Unfriendly; hostile]

 

字源:inimical來源就是emeny + ical,有敵人在自然是不利的。

ps. Curiosity can do more things than kill a cat; and if emotions, well recognized as feminine(嬌柔的), are inimical to feline life, then jealousy would soon leave the whole world catless.

好奇心可以殺死一隻貓;那些嬌柔的情緒對貓是有害的,於是忌妒很快的就會使這世界catless.

它的原義是貓雖有九條命,但是憂慮忌妒的情緒很卻還是讓貓累死。(把好奇心想成是因忌妒而生的的就容易理解啦~)

 

 

 

 

 

imitate

imit(copy)-ate

v.仿製; 模仿 [To copy the actions, appearance, mannerisms, or speech of; mimic]

  ex. He can imitate a lion's roar.
  他能模擬獅子的吼叫。

 

 

字源:1525-35; < L. imitātus (ptp. of L.imitārī; to copy] akin to the base of imāgō (ex. image)

imitate 跟 image的發展是有關的唷

聯想:imit 可以看成" i + m + i  "經過machine製造出來的I (我)

 

 

 

 

inimitable

in-imit(copy)-able

adj.無法倣傚的 [incapable of being imitated or copied]

  ex. 王菲 is famous for her inimitable voice.

 

inimitable <> ordinary

 

 

 

 

 

iniquity

in-iqu(=equ)-ity

n.不公正, 罪惡行為 [Gross immorality or injustice; wickedness..]

  ex. He had plumbed the very depths of iniquity.
  他已經投入了罪惡的深淵。

 

 

ps.1

當我們說 iniquity的時候,指 evil, sin

而我們說 inequity的時候,指的是 unfairness

 

ps.2

equity n.公平   // inequilty n.不公平

equality n.均等

 

 

 

 

iniquitous

in-iquit(=equal)-ous

adj.不公正的, 罪惡的 [characterized by injustice or wickedness; wicked; sinful.]

  ex. Vote by  black box operation(黑箱作業) is iniquitous.

 

  ps. iniquitous <> disinterested

 

 

 

 

 

initial

adj.開始的,最初的 [Of, relating to, or occurring at the beginning; first]

  ex. His initial reaction was one of shock.
  他最初的反應是震驚。

v.簽(或印)姓名的首字母於

  ex. He initialed the paper G.P.S.
  他在文件上籤上姓名的首字母G.P.S。

 

  字源:L. initi(um) +al

 

  ps . initial:realized

 

 

 

 

initiate

initi-ate

v.開始;創始 [to begin, set going, or originate]

v.把初步知識傳授給

  ex. He initiated his son into the game of chess.
  他把下棋的初步知識教給兒子。

adj.開始的

n.新加入者

 

  initiate <> follow up (追尋原有的東西..不是創造)

 

 

 

 

 

 

initiative

n.初步的行動 [ an introductory act or step]

  ex. to take the initiative in making acquaintances.

n.主動權 [the ability to decide what to do next and to do it, without needing other people to tell you what to do.]

  ex. He paused enough to consider the options but never so long as to lose the initiative.

 

ps.

initiative 在憲法中指"創製權"

environmental initiative = 環境發起團體/環境倡議實體

 

 

 

 

injection

in-ject(throw)-ion   "丟進去"

n.注射 [the act of injecting.]

n.注射劑

 

 

 

 

injunction

in-junct-ion

n.命令(禁令) [a court order, telling sb. not to do sth.]

  ex. He had an injunction out against him today.
  今天他接到了法院的禁令。

 

  ps. from wiki: injunction是以法庭判令作出的一種衡平法上的補救措施(equitable remedy) ,藉此當事人會被要求去開始或停止做某種事宜。任何被牽涉的一方如無法遵從禁制令,將會面臨民事或刑事上的刑罰。

 

字構:"使人加入"-->命令

 

 

 

ps.

enjoin  

v.命令 [to order]  [使別人加入-->命令]

 

review
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字根 junct 、 join 、 joint 的比較

 

字根junct

 

junction   n.接合點

juncture   n.接合點、重要關頭

adjunct    n.附屬物、修飾語 
               ex.兼任教授 adjunct professor

 

conjunction   n.連詞[ex. and、or、but]

 

disjunction     n.分離、分裂

disjunctive     a.(指連詞)轉折的、反意的 [ex. either、or]

 

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字根join

 

conjoin  v.連接 [unite and join together]

 

enjoin   v.命令 [to order]  [使別人加入-->命令]

 

rejoin      v.回答、重新接合  [再次加入爭辯,原義為defendant's answer to the replication]

rejoinder  n.反駁性質的回答 = retort

 

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字根joint

 

    joint         n.關節、連接處

disjointed    adj.脫臼的、說話內容或文章內容不連貫的

 

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