n. [a former title of the pagan(p.340) high priest at Rome, later used of popes and occasionally of other bishops, and now confined exclusively to the pope]

nowadays, pontiff = pope

what is the pope?

The Pope (from Latin: papa; from Greek: πάππας (pappas), a child's word for father) is the Bishop of Rome, a position that makes him the leader of the worldwide Catholic Church (which is composed of the Latin Rite and the Eastern Catholic Churches in full communion with the see of Rome). The current office-holder is Pope Benedict XVI, who was elected in a papal conclave on 19 April 2005.

Incumbent: Benedict XVI Elected: 19 April 2005








adj. [of, pertaining to, or characteristic of a pontiff]

adj. [pompous, dogmatic, or pretentious]  

  ex. to resent someone's pontifical manner.






v. [to serve or officiate as a pontiff, esp in celebrating a Pontifical Mass]

v. [to speak or behave in a pompous or dogmatic manner]








popul(L. populus; people)-ace

n.平民, 大眾 [formal, the general public; ordinary people, = masses]



1572, from M.Fr. populace,  from It. popolaccio  "riffraff, rabble," from popolo  "people" (from L. populus  "people") + pejorative suffix -accio.

概念就是一群common people。



popular = popul(people)-ar










adj. [densely populated;having a large population]









review p.79

陶: pottery, ceramic

瓷: porcelain

通稱: crockery








porcupine    "spiny pig"


n. 豪豬 [any of several rodents covered with stiff, sharp, erectile spines or quills, as Erethizon dorsatum  of North America.]



This 5 year old male was a pet in a home, and now lives at the Alaska Wildlife Conservation Center. This little guy had been given an apple to eat, and seems to act more like a puppy than a porcupine!



hedgehog n.刺蝟 [hog=pig]

hedgehog vs. porcupine 他們倆個可是不同的動物唷(雖然長得滿像的@@)










n. [a minute opening especially in an animal or plant especially : one by which matter passes through a membrane ]

  ex. Sweat pore, an anatomical structure of the skin of humans (and other mammals) used for secretion of sweat


v.pore over sth  = study sth by looking at it or thinking about it very carefully

  ex. She was poring over an old map of the area. 她正在仔細查閱該地區的舊地圖






adj. [full of pores.]

adj. [permeable by water, air, etc.]

  ps. 有時候我會在課本中看到這個字,比方說在熱物中,在講氣體擴散時的porous partition.










v.預示; 為...的惡兆 [to give warning of; be a sign or warning of (sth in the future)]

  ex. His silence portends(=is a sign of ..in the future)  trouble. 他沉默不語可不是好兆頭.

  ps. 等等我們會複習"惡兆三兄弟",不過我還是先說明一下,omen, portent(都是名詞), bode 是可以指一種現象,這現象"預示"將有大的改變來臨,更嚴謹的說,這三個詞並沒有一定指未來會發生壞的事情,他們只是個sign~,但是我們習慣用於壞的方面,所以我才把標題列為"惡兆三兄弟"。









n.預示 [a sign or indication of a future event, esp a momentous or calamitous one; omen]

  ex. I see it as a portent of things to come.






portentous   [pɔrˈtɛntəs]

adj. [of, relating to, or constituting a portent]

adj. [If someone's way of speaking, writing, or behaving is portentous, they speak, write, or behave more seriously than necessary because they want to impress other people.]

  ex. 類似強調世界末日已經快來的人


from M-W

synonyms OMINOUS, PORTENTOUS mean having a menacing or threatening aspect.


ominous implies having a menacing, alarming character foreshadowing evil or disaster.



portentoussuggests being frighteningly big or impressive but now seldom definitely connotes forewarning of calamity.




惡兆三兄弟 很多地方都有出現過

portend    v.預示; 惡兆 portent n. 預示; 惡兆 portentous adj.惡兆的
omen n/v.預示; 惡兆      ominous  adj.惡兆的
bode    v.預示; 惡兆        










pretend         v.假裝          [事先就先拉好,卻假裝還沒拉好-->假裝]


pretension      n.自命非凡    [假裝自己很偉大,實際上卻什麼都不是]


pretentious   adj.自命非凡的










port(carry)-folio(leaf, sheet)

n. [a hinged cover or flexible case for carrying loose papers, pictures, or pamphlets ]

n. [set of investments (eg stocks and shares) owned by a person, bank, etc ]

  ex. My stockbroker manages my portfolio for me. 我的證券經紀人替我管理投資組合

  ps. From about 1930 it has also come to mean a "collection of securities or responsibilities held by an individual"









v.畫某人的像 [make a picture of sb ]

v.描繪, 描寫 [to depict in words; describe graphically.]

  ex. This book portrays the beauty and balminess of this southern island.


字源:"to draw, to paint, portray" (12c.), lit. "trace, draw forth," from por-  "forth" (from L. pro- ) + traire  "trace, draw," from L. trahere  "to drag, draw"

portray v.描繪

portrait n.肖像畫







pos  post  == put放









v. [ to set forth or offer for attention or consideration ]

  ex. let me pose a question

  ex. Heavy traffic poses a problem in many old towns.


v. [to put or set in place ]


  ex.The artist asked her to pose for him.


n. [a sustained posture especially : one assumed for artistic effect]

ps. pose and poise (p. 364)










n. [ person who behaves in an unnatural affected way in order to impress others]

  考古:poseur <> sincere person

  ps. poseur table.










n. = a postulate.

v. [ suggest or assume (sth) as a fact]

   ps. If you posit something, you suggest or assume it as the basis for an argument or calculation. 

   ex. He goes further, positing that chemical elements radiate electromagnetic signals.









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