n. [a black, carbonaceous substance produced during incomplete combustion of coal, wood, oil, etc., rising in fine particles and adhering to the sides of the chimney or pipe conveying the smoke: also conveyed in the atmosphere to other locations.]

  ps. 由不完全燃燒所產生的小微粒,像在煙囪內部累積的一層黑黑的菸灰就是soot了。

  ex. Such benefits range from decreased respiratory disease thanks to less soot all the way to mitigation of climate change. (Scientific American Jul 14, 2013)




Study: Soot Is Second Leading Cause of Global Warming









v.使平靜, 使緩和 [to tranquilize or calm, as a person or the feelings; to relieve, comfort, or refresh]

   ex. to soothe a crying baby


allay  v.使平靜, 使緩和 (relieve) (p.19)
alleviate  v.使緩和, 減輕 (make  less severe) (p.19)
appease  v.使緩和,安撫  (make quiet or calm, by concession) (p.31)
assuage  v.使緩和, 減輕 (make  less severe) (p.40)
mitigate  v.使緩和, 減輕 (make  less severe) (p.313)
mollify  v. 使緩和, 減輕 (p.314)
pacify  v.平息; 安撫 ( to establish peace) (p.339)











n. [a piece of solid food, as bread, for dipping in liquid food.]

v.浸濕 [to dip or soak in liquid]

  ex. to sop bread in gravy.


n. [thing offered to a displeased or troublesome person to calm him or win his favor ]

   ex.  to offer as a sop to his anger


ps. SOP = Standard operating procedure

        or =  Statement of Purpose.



quick review





soak  v.浸泡    [想成soap肥皂+ k]

 v.浸入水中、熄滅 ( 燈、火等 ) ex. to douse the campfire

drench v.使濕透  ( ex. Rains drench  the park in winter. )








adj. [very wet; drenched]










sophism   /'sɑfɪzəm/


n.  [a specious argument used for deceiving someone (modern meaning.)]

  ps. philosophy = phil(love)-o-soph(wisdom)-y

  ps. sophia = wisdom (蘇菲的世界)


  etymology: from Gk. sophisma "sophism, clever device," from sophizesthai "become wise"

  文化背景:Sophists, 中文譯成詭辯學家,原始是指在古希臘的時候教導各種要在人生中成功的技巧的學家,內容像是有哲學、法律、演講的技巧等等。較早期這些詭辯學家是被社會大眾給尊敬的,但是後來詭辯學家要繳昂貴的學費才能去學習他們教的課,以致於最後只有貴族或者有錢人才能去學習這些詭辯學家的智慧(wisdom),以現在社會的比擬像是超貴的補習班。也因此被社會大眾給討厭與批評,後來的蘇格拉底(Socrates), 柏拉圖(Plato)都也曾嚴厲的批評,在柏拉圖的對話錄中,把這些詭辯學家描寫成是"欺騙的"、"似是而非的",而後就成為現今主要的字意了。










sophistry  /'sɑfɪstrɪ/


n. = sophism










adj. 老於世故的 [(of a person, ideas, tastes, manners, etc.) altered by education, experience, etc., so as to be worldly-wise; not naive ]

  ex.  the sophisticated eye of a journalist.

  ex. Recently her tastes have become more sophisticated.

  <> callow adj. [immature or inexperienced] (see p. 71)


adj. [complicated and refined; elaborate; subtle]

  ex. Honeybees use one of the most sophisticated communication systems of any insect.



Jack McDuff(American jazz organist)

其1976年的專輯,Sophisticated Funk,的CD封面。>////<











n. [sophisticated character, ideas, tastes, or ways as the result of education, worldly experience, etc]

  ex. More and more hotels are happy to accommodate you with style, sophistication and economy.










soporific  (ˌsɒpəˈrɪfɪk)

sopor(deep sleep)-ific

adj. [causing or tending to cause sleep.]

  ex. The warmth of the room and the monotony of the speaker's voice grew soporific.

  ex. Total uniformity is not required, and in fact that can be boring and soporific.



  ps. insomnia n.失眠  (p.268)

  ps. hypnotic adj.催眠的 ps. 讓人有點恍神,且引誘想睡 (p.243)










sorcery       /'sɔrsərɪ/

n.巫術 [the art, practices, or spells of magic, esp black magic, by which it is sought to harness occult forces or evil spirits in order to produce preternatural effects in the world]

  ps. Some scholars distinguish sorcery from witchcraft by noting that it is learned rather than intrinsic. Other scholars, noting that modern witches claim to learn their craft, suggest that sorcery's intent is always evil and that of witchcraft can be either good or bad.

  related word:

alchemy  n. 練金術
exorcise  v. 驅魔
wizards and witches  n. 巫師與巫婆












adj. [dirty and unpleasant]

adj. [immoral or dishonest]

  ex. I don't want to hear the sordid details of your relationship with Sandra.

  ex. His sordid record covering up child sex crimes should be considered a stain on the church and unworthy of a papal elector(可投教宗選舉的人). (Should Sex-Abuse-Scandal Cardinals Be Allowed to Vote for New Pope?)


  syn: nasty, shameful, vile

  from L. sordidus "dirty," from sordere "be dirty".

  音: sordid只指髒髒的東西,所以我們需要掃地。








souvenir     /suːvənɪər/

n.紀念品 [ thing taken, bought or received as a gift, and kept to remind one of a person, a place or an event ]

  ps. 像去日本旅遊時,可能會買個御守當souvenir。



  from Fr. souvenir









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