ratify /ˈrætǝˌfaɪ/

v.批准 [to approve and sanction formally ]

ex. The parliaments of Australia and Indonesia have yet to ratify the treaty .




ratification /ˌrætǝfǝˈkеʃǝn/


n. [The ratification of a treaty or written agreement is the process of ratifying it.]



Ratification of the United States Constitution

Article Seven of th e constitution of the United States describes the process by which the entire document was to become effective. It required that conventions of nine of the thirteen original States ratify the constitution . Once word was received that the ninth state had ratified the constitution—New Hampshire, June 21, 1788 - a timetable was set for the start of operations under the Constitution, and on March 4, 1789, the government under the Constitution began operations.


Understanding the U.S. Constitution part 1







ratiocination (ˌrætɪˈɒsɪˌneɪt)

ratio-cination( L.conari ; to try)

n.推理 [the process of logical reasoning.]

ex. to use ratiocination to solve a problem.


Death Note: Amazing Ratiocination






ration /ˈræʃǝn/

n.配給量 [ fixed quantity, esp an official allowance of food, etc in times of shortage]


Gas ration stamps being printed as a result of the 1973 oil crisis, U.S. Bureau of Engraving & Printing







rational /ˈræʃǝnḷ/

adj.理性的 [having reason or understanding ]

ex. No rational person would go to work in his pyjamas.


ps. ratio

from L. ratio "reckoning, calculation, business affair, procedure,"


Rational and Irrational Numbers









rattle /ˈrætḷ/

v. [to make a rapid succession of short sharp noises]

ex. the windows rattled in the wind.


ps. rattlesnake

A man gets bitten by a venomous rattlesnake and tries to find civilization before his body shuts down.


Rattlesnakes are best known for the hiss of their famous tails. And this western diamondback rattlesnake catches its prey, a rat, with an ambush.







raucous /ˈrɒkǝs/

adj.喧鬧的 [harshly or unpleasantly loud]

ex. raucous party



Clark's raucous party







ravage /ˈrævɪdʒ/


v.毀壞 [A town, country, or economy that has been ravaged is one that has been damaged so much that it is almost completely destroyed. ]

ps. it can be a noun.









rave / rеv /

v.極力誇獎 [speak or write about sb/sth with enthusiasm or admiration ]

ex. She simply raved about French cooking. 她對法國烹調讚不絕口.


v.狂亂地說 [talk wildly or furiously as if in a fever or mad ]

ex. She cried and raved for weeks, and people did not know what to do.



ps.Noun meaning "rowdy party" is from 1960, though rave-up was British slang for "wild party" from 1940

What is a Rave Like







ravel /ˈrævḷ/

v. [to tangle threads, fibres, etc to become entangled]

v. [to disentangle or resolve] = unravel

ex. to ravel out a complicated story



ps. Maurice Ravel: 拉威爾, 印象主義音樂作曲家








ravenous /ˈrævɪnǝs/


adj.狼吞虎嚥的 [very eager or greedy for food, satisfaction, or gratification ] = rapacious








ravishing /ˈrævɪʃɪŋ/

adj. [unusually attractive, pleasing, or striking ]








ravine /rǝˈvin/

n. [a narrow steep-sided valley commonly eroded by running water.]



可以review p.73

Ravine Flyer II 2 Wooden Roller Coaster

Balancing artist hangs over ravine edge







raze /rеz/

v.夷平 [destroy (a building, town, etc) completely,usu by leaving no walls, etc standing]

ex. raze sth to the ground

ps. Demolition





n. [a keen-edged cutting instrument for shaving or cutting hair]






reactant /rɪˈæktǝnt/


n.反應物 [a chemical substance that is present at the start of a chemical reaction]

old: reactant<>inert material





reactionary /rɪˈækʃǝnˌɛrɪ/


adj.反動的 [A reactionary person or group tries to prevent changes in the political or social system of their country. ]




etymology: In Marxist use, opposed to revolutionary and used opprobriously in ref. to opponents of communism (1858).

wiki: The French Revolution gave the English language three politically descriptive words denoting anti-progressive politics: reactionary, conservative and right. Reactionary derives from the French word réactionnaire (an early nineteenth-century coinage), and conservative from conservateur, identifying monarchist parliamentarians opposed to the revolution.[4] In this French usage, reactionary denotes "a movement towards the reversal of an existing tendency or state" and a " return to a previous condition of affairs. " The Oxford English Dictionary cites the first English-language usage was by John Stuart Mill, in 1840: "The philosophers of the reactionary school—of the school to which Coleridge belongs".


In the twentieth century, reactionary denoted opponents of socialism and communism.

In Marxist terminology, reactionary is a pejorative adjective denoting people whose ideas might appear to be socialist, but, in essence, contain elements of feudalism, capitalism, nationalism, fascism or other characteristics of the ruling class.









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