review p.73


cap   --> cip

capit --> cipit


precipice (ˈprɛsɪpɪs)


n. [a very steep or overhanging place ]

考古:defile:narrowness=precipice:steepness 小道•狹窄=懸崖•陡峭



字源:1598, "fall to great depth," from Fr. précipice,  from L. præcipitium  "a steep place," lit. "a fall or leap," from præceps  (gen. præcipitis ) "steep, headlong, headfirst," from præ-  "forth" + caput  "head" (see head) . Meaning "steep face of rock" is recorded from 1632.











v. [to throw violently]

ps. 這意思也有adj的用法, falling, flowing, or rushing with steep descent

因此,precipitate有 魯莽的 [ done without care or thought]意思

ex. his precipitate action


v. [to bring about especially abruptly]

ex. One small error precipitated the disaster.

v. [to cause to separate from solution or suspension]

ps. 也可以當名詞,a substance separated from a solution or suspension by chemical or physical change usually as an insoluble amorphous or crystalline solid.











n. [ a precipitating agent especially : one that causes the formation of a precipitate]

考古: solvent <> precipitant


wiki :A solvent (from the Latin solvere, "loosen") is a liquid, solid, or gas that dissolves another solid, liquid, or gaseous solute, resulting in a solution that is soluble in a certain volume of solvent at a specified temperature.


AgNO3(aq) + NaCl(aq) → AgCl(s) + NaNO3(aq)
AgNO3(aq) + NaI(aq) → AgI(s) + NaNO3(aq)










n.[ the quality or state of being precipitate : hastiness ;  an act, process, or instance of precipitating especially : the process of forming a precipitate ]

n.雨﹑ 雨夾雪﹑ 雪﹑ 雹子等的降落 [a deposit on the earth of hail, mist, rain, sleet, or snow]


from wiki: In meteorology, precipitation is any product of the condensation of atmospheric water vapor that falls under gravity.

It occurs when a local portion of the atmosphere becomes saturated with water vapour and the water condenses.

Two processes, possibly acting together, can lead to air becoming saturated: cooling the air or adding water vapour to the air.

Precipitation forms as smaller droplets coalesce via collision with other rain drops or ice crystals within a cloud.


Long-term mean precipitation by month








précis (ˈpreɪsiː)

n.摘要, 大意, 梗慨, 大綱. [restatement in shortened form of the main points or ideas of a speech or written text; summary]

ex. she goes in for giving a rapid precis of all her guests.



abridgment ...原本出現在p.3的,但我忘記講解了
abstract p.4









pre-cise(cut) "to cut beforehand"

adj.精確的 [exactly or sharply defined or stated ]

ex. I  can remember the precise moment when my daughter came to see me and her new baby brother in hospital.









v.排除 [to prevent the presence, existence, or occurrence of; make impossible; to make impossible by necessary consequence ]

ex. The insufficiency of the evidence precludes a conviction.

ex. That sale precludes further development on this site.



小review 字根:

claus= clos == close

exclude v.

cloister n. [a covered passage on the side of a court usually having one side walled and the other an open arcade or colonnade] p.89









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