n. [a grand or flamboyant manner] .. 這是較早期的用法

n. [confident stylish manner]

ps. If you do something with panache, you do it in a confident, stylish, and elegant way.

ex. The BBC Symphony Orchestra played with great panache.


字源 from M.Fr. pennache "plume of feathers,"

panache是個法文來的字,意思就是plume羽毛,它有影含者flamboyant manner and reckless courage。

King Henry IV of France. (亨利四世) 就以常帶著panache為有名,在開戰時他都會嘶喊:『Follow my white plume!』

聯想:pan平底鍋 + ache 痛 =把平底鍋(pan)戴在頭上,在插上些羽毛(panache),這個服裝讓設計師頭痛(ache)






pan(all)-creas (Gk. kreas = flesh 肉)

n.胰, 胰腺 [ an organ  that produces insulin and substances that help your body digest food. ]


What is the Pancreas

From wiki : 胰臟是古希臘解剖學家、外科醫生赫洛菲勒斯Herophilus (335-280 BC)發現的,數百年後,另一位古希臘解剖學家盧佛斯(Ruphos)將其命名為pancreas。希臘文pan意為全部(all),kreas意為肉(flesh)。








adj.大流行的, 普遍的 [Widespread; general.]

adj/n.大流行病(的) {[ Medicine Epidemic over a wide geographic area and affecting a large proportion of the population]

ex. pandemic influenza.

ex. 禽流感


Hospitals "Full-Up": The 1918 Influenza Pandemic

from wiki:西班牙型流行性感冒是人類歷史上最致命的傳染病,在1918~1919年曾經造成全世界約10億人感染,2千5百萬到4千萬人死亡(當時世界人口約17億人);其全球平均致死率約為2.5%-5%,和一般流感的0.1%比較起來較為致命。其名字的由來並不是因為此流感從西班牙爆發;而是因為當時西班牙有約8百萬人感染了此病,甚至連西班牙國王也感染了此病,所以被稱為西班牙型流行性感冒。



en demic

n.地方病 [(disease) that is regularly found in a particular country or area]

只會在某些地區發生的病 = endemic


epi demic

n.傳染病, 流行病 [disease) spreading quickly among many people in the same place for a time]

散播很快的病(但範圍卻不一定很大) = epidemic

epi 是 upon, among的意思

pan demic

n.大流行病 [disease occurring over a whole country or the whole world ]

發生的範圍很廣的病 = pandemic







n. [A very noisy place]

n. [Wild uproar or noise]


字的概念:就是撒旦與一推他的小鬼,就有當"a very noisy place"的用法了

ps. 這個字是17世紀的英國詩人John Milton所coin出來的,出現在他的史詩《Paradise Lost》,翻成《失樂園》,在書中辯證了許多困難的神學議題,包括了:命運、宿命、三位一體、以及原罪和死亡在世界中的出現。另外還包含了天使、墮落天使、撒但、以及天堂中的戰爭。 在詩中,pandemonium是指地獄的首都。

Scenes from Milton's Paradise Lost, Part I








v/n.拉皮條(者) [To act as a go-between or liaison in sexual intrigues]

ps. pander常做的事有,將妓女(prostitute)帶入某個地區or國家、經營性交易、當馬伕。

v.迎合(低級趣味或淫慾) or 利用別人的弱點 [To cater to the lower tastes and desires of others or exploit their weaknesses]

ex. He refused to pander to nostalgia and escapism.

ex. newspapers pandering to the public love of scandal.
迎合公眾喜好而報導醜聞的報紙 (很像壹週刊會做的)


聯想:一個pander 的工作就是將色鬼放在p um a的 under,來pander色鬼的lower tastes and desires








n.讚頌、讚辭 [a lofty oration or writing in praise of a person or thing; eulogy.]


字源:是從希臘文的Gk. panegyrikos logos 來的,指的是"(a speech) given in a public assembly",pan = all, 後面的部份是"place of assembly"




eulogy n.讚辭  (p.184)
encomium n.讚辭  (p.173)
比較中性的詞,the praise of a person or thing.
panegyric n.讚辭
panegyric是非常 formal 的public speech,(在後來還可以指verse),
是用來highly prasie a person or thing.
在雅典,panegyric會出現在national festival or games






n. [A panel is a flat rectangular piece of wood or other material that forms part of a larger object such as a door. ]

n.控制面板, 儀表板(飛行器﹑ 汽車等的) [board on which the controls and instruments of an aircraft, a car, etc are mounted]

n.小組 [A panel is a small group of people who are chosen to do something, for example to discuss something in public or to make a decision. ]

ex.  a panel of experts 專家小組





n.一陣劇痛  [a sudden sharp feeling of pain]

ex. she felt a pang of guilt about the way she was treating him.




pang       n.一陣劇痛

plangent  a.悲壯、悲鳴的 [ (of sounds) throbbing loudly]

ex. 岳飛的滿江紅

題外:龐姓的人英譯就是pang ("旁"也是)







n.恐慌 [A sudden, overpowering terror, often affecting many people at once.]

ex. The thought of flying fills me with panic.

ex. There was an immediate panic when the alarm sounded.

adj.恐慌的 [Of, relating to, or resulting from sudden, overwhelming terror]

古:panic >> nervous


字源:panic是來自於Pan(譯成潘神),他是森林的神,他會發出神秘的聲響而造成羊群、牛群、或是獨自的人有傳染性、無根據的害怕。在1757年的時候,首先用於對財務上的widespread apprehension.

Pan, the god of woods and fields who was the source of mysterious sounds that caused contagious, groundless fear in herds and crowds, or in people in lonely spots. As a noun, first recorded 1708. Meaning "widespread apprehension about financial matters" is first recorded 1757. The verb is 1827, from the noun. Panicky is first recorded 1869. Panic button in fig. sense is first recorded 1955, the literal sense apparently is from parachuting.


題外2:Panic button is a button that triggers an alarm







pan(all)- h orama( from Gk . sight)

n. 全景 [An unbroken view of an entire surrounding area.]

n. [A comprehensive presentation]

ex. The play presents a panorama of the history of communism(共產主義).


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