osmosis [ɑzˋmosɪs]

n.滲透作用 [Diffusion of fluid through a semipermeable membrane from a solution with a low solute concentration to a solution with a higher solute concentration until there is an equal concentration of fluid on both sides of the membrane.]

ex. RO = Reverse osmosis


n.潛移默化 [A gradual, often unconscious process of assimilation or absorption]

ex. learning French by osmosis while residing in Paris for 15 years.

ex. Children seem to learn about computers by osmosis.



Diffusion (spontaneous)vs. Osmosis (passive)

Diffusion --Diffusion is the spontaneous net movement of particles from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration












ossify [ˋɑsəˏfaɪ]

oss( bone)-ify

v.骨化 [become hard like bone; change into bone]

ps. If an idea, system, or organization ossifies or if something ossifies it, it becomes fixed and difficult to change

ps. Ossification = bone tissue formation

古:ossification:flexibility 降低









osseous [ˋɑsɪəs]


adj. [Composed of, containing, or resembling bone; bony.]

ex. osseous tissue 骨組織









ostensible [ɑsˋtɛnsəb]

ob( in front of )-tens(=tend; stretch)-ible

adj. 表面的, 假裝的 [Ostensible is used to describe something that seems to be true or is officially stated to be true, but about which you or other people have doubts. ]

ex. The ostensible reason for his absence was illness, but everyone knew he'd gone to a football match.
他稱病缺席, 但誰都知道他去看足球賽了

ex. The government rushes to sign the China trade pact and claims the pact will bring huge benefits to Taiwan. However I think national security and freedom should not be sacrificed for ostensible commercial profits . ( apr. 2014)

字構:ostensible的概念是"往前拉"所意謂的是" to show, to display ",因此只有表面功夫,就像候選人的口水只是個show,政見只是ostensible。



tend  *tent     == stretch 拉長



tent     n.帳篷

extend     v.延伸








ostentation [ˏɑstɛnˋteʃən]

ob( in front of )-tent(stretch)-ation

n.誇耀, 炫示 [= boastful showiness. ]

ps. If you describe someone's behaviour as ostentation, you are criticizing them for doing or buying things in order to impress people.

ex. Their daughter's wedding reception was sheer ostentation.


字構:ostentation 跟剛剛說到的"to show"的概念是一樣的。









ostracize [ˋɑstrəˏsaɪz]

v.放逐, 排斥 [to exclude, by general consent, from society, friendship, conversation, privileges,]

ex. He was ostracized by his colleagues for refusing to support the strike.


from Gk. ostrakon "tile, potsherd 陶片"

family word: ostracism

ostracism是一種在古雅典的放逐方式,為期十年。市民雅典會在 陶片 上寫上他們認為會危害到雅典城邦的人的名字(避免有產生專制者),然後收集陶片起來後,如果獲得足夠多的票數,那個人就會被逐出雅典城邦。

蘇格拉底(Socrates)的政治主張是反民主的。便到處散佈民主的弊端以警世人。他最常用的辦法是見人便問:如果你需要修鞋﹐應該到鞋匠那裡去對嗎﹖被問者當然回答說「對﹗」然後 他接問諸如﹐你要是想修桶﹐應當到箍桶匠那裡對嗎﹖你要是想修房﹐應當請泥瓦匠對嗎﹖你要是想釘馬掌﹐應當請鐵匠對嗎﹖當被質問者全都回答了「對」之後﹐蘇格拉底的最後一句反問是:如果管理國家﹐應該找誰﹖













ostrich /ˋɔstrɪtʃ/

n. 鴕鳥


真正的字源:F ostrusce  (cf. F autruche ) < VL *avistrūthius,  for L avis bird + LL strūthiō  < LGk strouthíōn (類鳥的)


聯想法: os(ob; to)-stri(string;有拉緊、絃的意思)-ch :鴕鳥的脖子是細細長長的

音: o-s-the rich ...oh! 死有錢人 = 鴕鳥


Animation race btween penguin and ostrich









adj.受人支配的 = be directed by other people (external )


相反的詞是,inner-directed = be directed by inner force.










n. 水獺


Otters holding hands










v.逐出 [to expel or remove from a place or position occupied]

ex. the American Revolution, which ousted the English

ex.  He was ousted from his position as chairman.

古:oust <> instate


聯想: ou s t oust中有個out

oust 也是一款除臭劑的牌子










adj. =going out

ex. an outgoing ship

ex. the outgoing president. 即將離任的總統。

adj.友好而好交際的 [friendly and sociable ]









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