n.【天】天底 [Astronomy A point on the celestial sphere directly below the observer, diametrically opposite the zenith.]

n. 最低點 [The lowest point]

  ex. the nadir of their fortunes.



字源:from Arabic nazir "opposite to," in nazir as-samt, lit. "opposite of the zenith," from nazir "opposite" + as-samt "zenith"

這是從阿拉伯與來的,其中原本是 nazir(opposite) as-samt(zenith),







v. 嘮嘮叨叨 [to find fault or complain in an irritating, wearisome, or relentless manner (often fol. by at).]

  ps. If someone nags you, they keep asking you to do something you have not done yet or do not want to do.

  ex. mother nagged me all day long.

  ex. My girlfriend nagged me to cut my hair.

v. 困擾 [to cause pain, discomfort, distress, depression,]

  ex. She had certain misgivings that nagged her. 





adj.天真幼稚的 [having or showing unaffected simplicity of nature or absence of artificiality;having or showing a lack of experience, judgment, or information]

  ps.If you describe someone as naive, you think they lack experience and so expect things to be easy or people to be honest or kind. naive有易受騙的意思

  ex.It's naive to think that teachers are always tolerant.


字源:from Fr. naïve --- from L. nativus "not artificial," also "native, rustic," lit. "born, innate, natural"



nat, nas == 生, born


nat-ion  n.國家 (that which has been born)
nat-ive  a.本國的
nat-ure  n.自然
in-nate  a. 天生的







n. 自我陶醉, 自戀 [excessive self-love; vanity]

  ex. Leaders too often suffer from narcissism and grandiosity that blind them to the shortcoming of their own character.


字源:在1899年由一位德國的精神病學家Paul Näcke所coin出來的,from Gk. Narkissos, beautiful youth in mythology

希臘神話中最俊美的男子Narcissus某日因為打獵、逐鹿而闖進森林裡,美麗的森林精靈Echo看到 Narcissus俊美的臉孔及強健的體魄馬上就愛上了他,而現身在他面前,可是Echo對於Narcissus的問話,卻只能無奈地重複他的話語。

Narcissus最後只好放棄她,來到山泉邊休息。這時他看到自己映在水中的倒影,驚覺世間竟然有如此俊美的人,於是開始向水中的倒影傾訴自己滿腔的愛意,躲在一旁偷看的Echo也只能重複他的話語,使得Narcissus誤以為水中的倒影也愛上自己,而不願離開半步,最後竟然憔悴而死。後來就在 Narcissus死的山泉旁邊長出美麗的花朵,這種花就以Narcissus為名,叫做"水仙花"。後來Narcissus就被引申做顧影自憐,自戀狂。









narco(stiff or numb)-tic

n.麻醉劑,致幻毒品...(中文不好翻)[any of a class of substances that blunt the senses, as opium, morphine, belladonna, and alcohol, that in large quantities produce euphoria, stupor, or coma, that when used constantly can cause habituation or addiction, and that are used in medicine to relieve pain, cause sedation, and induce sleep.]

adj.麻醉的,有麻醉作用的 [of or having the power to produce narcosis, as a drug]



narcotic .... morphine-like drugs

nicotine .... the substance in tobacco that people can become addicted to






adj.敘事的 [Consisting of or characterized by the telling of a story]

 n.記敘文;故事 [a story]

  ex. give a narrative of his journey



from wiki

A narrative is a story that is created in a constructive format (as a work of writing, speech, poetry, prose, pictures, song, motion pictures, video games, theatre or dance) that describes a sequence of fictional or non-fictional events. It derives from the Latin verb narrare, which means "to recount" and is related to the adjective gnarus, meaning "knowing" or "skilled".] (Ultimately derived from the Proto-Indo-European root gnō-, "to know").[2] [3], but can also be used to refer to the sequence of events described in a narrative. A narrative can also be told by a character within a larger narrative







nasc(to be born)-ent

adj.開始存在的, 初期的 [coming or having recently come into existence; buding]

  ps. Nascent things or processes are just beginning, and are expected to become stronger or to grow bigger.

  ex. USB 3.0 is a nascent technology.

  ex. Kenya's nascent democracy was threatened by conflict.

  ex. nascent middle class 剛興起的中產階級


字源:nasc=na(tus)"born" - sc"ing意思"









adj.出生的 [of or pertaining to a person's birth;Of, relating to, or accompanying birth]

  ex. celebrating one's natal day

  ex. natal injuries


ps1. Natal 也是一個巴西city的名稱唷,

ps2.巴西的「Merry Christmas」用葡萄牙語來說就是「Feliz Natal


review. page 266

(1) 若你說一個東西innate,你指的是此東西essential to the nature, character.

(2) 而用inborn則強烈暗示是自從"birth"後就一直呈現這種狀態

(3) congenital主要是指天生的缺陷,ex. a congenital disease.


     ex. a congenital liar.









adj.整潔的;瀟灑的 [neatly or trimly smart in dress or appearance]

  ex. a natty white uniform.


字源:1785, "neat, smart," originally slang, perhaps an altered form of 16c. nettie "neat, natty," from M.E. net "pure, fine, elegant".



Neat  Neat is the most general (最一般的)
     ex. a neat room; neat hair.
Tidy  Tidy emphasizes precise arrangement and order(強調安排與位置)
    ex.When she saw me come in tidy and well dressed, she even smiled
Trim  Trim stresses especially smart appearance (強調看起來滿聰明的)
Shipshape  Shipshape evokes meticulous order (指排的非常有順序)








n.作嘔 [A feeling of sickness in the stomach characterized by an urge to vomit]

  ex. Early pregnancy is often accompanied by nausea.

  ex.He lay on his back in a nausea of self-disgust.


字源:1569, from L. nausea "seasickness," from Ionic Gk. nausia (Attic nautia) "seasickness, nausea," from naus "ship"

nausea原指是暈船,是從希臘文的 naus "ship" 所造字而成的, ps. 我們之後提到的nav也是船的意思。因為原始印歐語的的 nau就有boat的意思。






v. 使作嘔, 使厭惡[To feel or cause to feel nausea; To feel or cause to feel loathing or disgust]

  ex. I began to nauseate the place I was in.














nagged her


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