bureaucracy    /bjʊˋrɑkrəsɪ/



  ps.傾向於複雜的過程從而阻礙有效行動的行政制度; wiki: an organizational structure characterized by adherence to standardized procedure.

  ex. Too many process reports are one of the main complaints about bureaucracy. ( 2016補充





n.(政府機構的)局,司,署,處 [a division of a government department or an independent administrative unit.]

  ex. Federal Bureau of Investigation = FBI







burgeon    /ˋbədʒən/

v.急速成長 [to grow or develop quickly]

  ex. He burgeoned into a fine actor.

  ex. The 4k high-resolution TV burgeons in Japan but it is still a long way for Taiwan. (2016補充

  ex. grow:burgeon



字源: c.1325, from O.Fr. burjoner "to bud, sprout," from burjon "a bud," of uncertain origin










bury & burial

bury    /ˋbɛrɪ/

v.埋葬  [to put in the ground and cover with earth]

  ex. The pirates buried the box on the island.






burial    /ˋbɛrɪəl/

n.葬禮 the act or ceremony of burying.

  His burial will take place next Sunday.







burlesque    /bəˋlɛsk/

burl-esque(什麼的風格) ex. arabesque

n.滑稽諷刺作品(可指歌劇、詩歌等) [ an artistic composition, esp. literary or dramatic, that, for the sake of laughter, vulgarizes lofty material or treats ordinary material with mock dignity.]

  ex. burlesque: play (種屬)



字源;from It. burlesco, from burla "joke, fun, mockery,"


ps. from wiki: Burlesque is a literary, dramatic or musical work intended to cause laughter by caricaturing the manner or spirit of serious works, or by ludicrous treatment of their subjects. The word derives from the Italian burlesco, which itself derives from the Italian burla – a joke, ridicule or mockery.

Burlesque overlaps in meaning with caricature, parody and travesty, and, in its theatrical sense, with extravaganza, as presented during the Victorian era.




burlesque Burlesque2











v.擦亮;使光亮 [ make something smooth and shiny by rubbing]

  ex. You can burnish your car by wax.

  ex. After losing a non-ranked team, this champion-pursing team needs to burnish its reputation.

   考古: burnish•dull   磨光•暗淡的(前者消除後者)


burnish burnish2






burnish   v.擦亮、給金屬拋光  [跟polish意思一樣]

furnish   v.供應提供裝備佈置  //  furbish v.打掃很久沒用的家具

garnish   v.給食物加裝飾


polish    v.磨光、擦亮   [to make smooth and glossy, esp. by rubbing or friction]

tarnish   v.失去光澤

varnish    v.上清漆      (又叫凡立水,塗後表面會有有光澤的透明膜 )



garnish       v.給餐桌上的食物裝飾  [屬 ~nish 系列,ex. furnish burnish ]

gar..ish    adj.過於艷麗的= gaudy




gar-den      n.花園

gar-land     n.花環

gar-ment    n.衣服    [穿上衣服的女人,漂亮似花]

gar-ish    adj.過於艷麗的= gaudy [-ish結尾是不好的形容詞]










bust    /bʌst/

n.女性的胸圍; 半身像 [sculpture of a person's head, shoulders and chest]

n.使爆裂 bust =burst

  ex. He busted his watch yesterday.


   go bust =go bankrupt.











n. (武器,工具等的)較粗的一端


  ex. Hey, don't just stare at women's butt. Here is a gym, and please behave and doing your workout. (2016補充)

v. 用頭或角猛撞 [ to strike or push something or at something with the head or horns.]

  ex. The goat butted John in the stomach.










buttress    /ˋbʌtrɪs/


n.[建] 拱壁;扶壁  [any external prop or support built to steady a structure by opposing its outward thrusts, esp. a projecting support built into or against the outside of a masonry wall.]

v.扶持  [to give encouragement or support]

  考古: buttress•edifice  扶牆•(用來支持)大廈


buttress buttress2











edifice    /ˋɛdəfɪs/

n.雄偉的建築物 [a building, esp. one of large size or imposing appearance.]

from edify v.教化

edifice 原指temple;施行教化的地方,而後指雄偉的建築物










n.報刊文章撰稿人簽名處;署名 [a printed line accompanying a news story, article, or the like, giving the author's name.]

  考古: article:byline = movie•credits










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