v. [use bribery or some other means to persuade (sb) to do sth illegal, esp tell lies in a court of law]
note: 字源上 orn 是跟ornament一樣來源的，都是指給予什麼裝備的概念， 這邊的suborn就是指給錢來作偽證。
ex. This baseball superstar may once try to suborn the doctors to modify the medical record of using steroid.
n. [a writ issued by court authority to compel the attendance of a witness at a judicial proceeding]
note1: subpoena是法院叫你出庭作證的通知單，這個字在13~14世紀就開始使用了. 使用的方式： The court issues a subpoena to him. So he will be served with the subpoena in the court, and he needs to appear in the court.
note2: subpoena的字源上是指，under penalty, 作證人要公正，所以他所說的話得under penalty，如果說假的事證會被懲罰。
What is a Subpoena? What do you do if you're served with one? Stuart Florida Lawyer Explains
adj.隨後的 [following in time, order, or place]
ex. Since the Standard Model developed, the all subsequent particle physics experiments agree with its prediction within the microscopic scale, and scientists proved the Higgs Boson exists just in 2013. The Standard Model works so well in our known sub-atomic physics, but when we refer to a very large scale, such as the whole universe, the Standard Model still fails to predict many things we observed correctly.
concomitant, con-com(=come)-i-tant, 強調同一起來的
consequent, con-sequ-ent, 強調是因前一件的緣由而照成的
v.下降 [sink to a lower or to the normal level]
note1: 字源上，字首sub-有down, below的意思，sid是指 sit or settle. 在這邊整體字的概念是坐下於較低的位置，像是下沈了一樣。
note2: 可以用在指"程度"方面的下降，等同abate的意思。 也可以當地層(substance)垮掉。
ex. The blind fever of supporting the new elected president has been greatly subsided, since people discovered the wage level effectively descended to the one 10 year ago.
ex. The violence of the snow storm subsides, although the temperature is still 20 degrees below zero.
ex. Florida State is famous for sink holes. The limestone underground is gradually removed by water, causing the substance to subside gradually. And in some cases the substance just drops suddenly, and these accidents have killed several Florida residents.
sub(below, 引申成背後)-sid(to sit)-y
n.津貼, 補貼 [money paid, esp by a government, to help an industry, to support the arts, to keep prices down, etc]
note: 在拉丁文中，subsidy是用在軍事方面上的字，指的是坐在後面援助(aid, help), 到了1828年開始才有現今當作( grants of money)的用法。
ex. When our President visited African allies during a diplomatic tour, he promised to give subsidies to build hospitals.
ex. The protesters show their indignation about the subsidy cut to public education by marching along the street.
adj.輔助的 、隸屬的 [connected to but smaller, of less importance,etc than sth else]
note: subsidy是補助，在後面加個ary，變成形容詞型。 可用形容小的道路，次要的角色等等。
ex. Our main goal is to settle down the compensation, but he is focus on a subsidiary issue, explaining the damage is not his fault.
ex. Going into a big city, the main road starts to connect several subsidiary roads, which makes the traffic congested.
ex. Sony has several subsidiaries. For example Sony Computer Entertainment is responsible for developing PlayStation. And Sony Life is an insurance subsidiary. Recently Sony sell off its PC business.
n.存活 [the condition of just having enough food or money to stay alive]
note: subsist, 在拉丁文的意思是 to stand firm. 不過在今天的意思中，subsist倒是指勉強的存活的意思，能站起來，但並沒有辦法很堅固。 比方說流浪在街上的人，他們僅靠著一點食物還維持生命。你可以說 they subsist on little food. 所以 subsistence 是指這種勉強存活的狀態。 subsistence在哲學中的用法是指existence.
ex. In subsistence farming(自給自足的農業), farmers produce food to eat themselves rather than to sell.
n.物質 [particular type of matter]
note: substance的字根stan是 stand, 站立的意思，在拉丁文的意思是 to stand firm，而到了中世紀的英文指的是 essential nature. 而演化到現在的用法，substance指實體的物質，衍生用法可以指對話中實質的，精華的部分。
ex. The Police have found poisonous substances in the cup of water, hence they thought it was murder.
ex. Scientists call unknown substances in the Universe dark matter.
n.實質部分; 主旨 [most important or essential part of sth; essential meaning]
note: 當作essential part時是不可數名詞
ex. I agree with the substance of what you say.
ex. People are craving things that have substance - the things that are meaningful and genuine. Only sincere praise can quench their thirsty for the feeling of importance.
ex. The substance of maintaining relationship between people is to think by other person's point of view.
adj. [ concerning the most important part of sth]
note: substance 名詞型中就有實質的，精華的部分，因此substantial 形容詞型只是延續其意思。
adj. [large in amount; considerable]
ex. Follow this workout program. You will see substantial improvement in your body shape and strength.
ex. People advocating environment protection hold several public speeches, trying to make substantial impacts to policy-making decisions.
v. [to establish by proof or competent evidence; verify]
ex. No evidence can substantiate the claim particle could move beyond the speed of light.
ex. We guess he is the murderer, but the police cannot find evidence to substantiate this suspicion.
v. [to give substance or form to; embody]
note： 這個字義來自subtance, 本身就有實質的意思，所以把什麼抽象的東西表達出來就可以用substantiate這個字。
ex. This painting tries to substantiate the mysterious concept of nirvana(涅槃).
adj. [dealing with the most important and central aspects of a subject.]
ex. The community committee undergoes a substantive reform. There are young women joining the members.