irradicable

in-radi(root)-cable      [ex. eradicate]

adj.無法根除的 [Impossible to uproot or destroy; ineradicable]

  ex. an irradicable disease
  一種無法根除的疾病

 

irradicable:remove

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

irreconcilable

in-re-concil-able

adj.不可調和的, 和解的 [ incapable of being made to acquiesce or compromise]

  ex. The separated couple was irreconcilable.
  那對分居的夫妻不可能和解。

n.不能和解的反對者

 

review p.101 or p.111
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conciliate

concil(=council n.議事 n.協調會 )-i-ate

v.安撫,撫慰

v.調解

 

council        n.協調會          [an assembly of persons called together for discussion]  

concil-iate   v.安撫、使和好  [to overcome the distrust or animosity of; appease]

 

consul      n.駐外領事

consult     v.與...商量     [to seek advice or information from]

condole    v.哀悼;同情 [to express sympathy with a person who is suffering sorrow]

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irredeemable

in-redeem-able

adj.不能贖回的 [not redeemable; incapable of being bought back or paid off.]

adj.不能挽救的, 不可救藥的 [Impossible to remedy]

  ex. irredeemable losses.

  ex. irredeemable sinners.
  不能挽救的罪人

 

ps. 鈔票不能換成硬幣的,也是用這個字 irredeemable

ps. 有些gift card裡面的錢也是irredeemable的...

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

redeem

v.買回;贖回 [to recover (something pledged or mortgaged) by payment or other satisfaction]

  ex. to redeem a pawned(典當的) watch

v.償還,還清 [to buy or pay off; clear by payment]

  ex.to redeem a mortgage.

 

字源:red=re"back, eem from L.emere"to buy"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

irremediable

in-remedy-iable

adj.不能治療的, 不能挽回的 [Impossible to remedy, correct, or repair; incurable or irreparable]

  ex. an irremediable error
  不能挽救的過失

 

ps.

remedy

n.治療

n.補救

v.治療, 補救

字源: re + med(ērī) to heal, assuage

ex. medicine [med-ic-ine] n.藥

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

irreducible

in-reduce-ible

adj.不能縮減的;不能減小的 [not reducible; incapable of being reduced or of being diminished or simplified further]

  ex. to an irreducible minimum

 

ps.1 irreducible 在數學上指不能再約分的

ps.2 reduce的字構是re(back)-duc(lead)-e

ps.3 有一個詞Irreducible complexity是有關生物方面的,指的說生物太過複雜,不可能由某個簡單的祖先演化而得的,see youtube影片

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

irrepressible

in-repress-ible

adj.壓抑不住的 [Difficult or impossible to control or restrain]

  ex. an irrepressible laughter

 

ps.

repress [re-press] v.鎮壓

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

irrevocable

in-revoke-able

adj.不能變更的, 不能撤回的  [not to be revoked or recalled; unable to be repealed or annulled; unalterable]

  ex. The decision was irrevocable.
  作出的決定已不能更改。

  ex. Once you say that to your mother, the damage is irrevocable. It will permanently hurt her feeling. (2014 March 補充)

 

revoke [re-vok(=voc; call)-e] v.撤回,取消

ps. 通常看到這個字,是在irrevocable letter of credit,或者是寫成irrevocable L/C,L/C是國際結算的一種方式,在國際貿易中一般採用irrevocable L/C。

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

irrigate

v.灌溉 [to supply (land) with water by artificial means, as by diverting streams, flooding, or spraying.]

  ex. Some plains rivers regularly fertillize and irrigate surrounding areas with their floods.
  有些平原河流不斷地以其洪水培肥和灌溉著周圍的地區。

v.【醫】沖洗(傷口等) [Medicine/Medical. to supply or wash (an orifice, wound, etc.) with a spray or a flow of some liquid.]

 

聯想: irri + gate 後面結尾有個gate,代表是水門,是灌溉的水門

字源:Latin irrigāre, in + rigāre to water

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

irritate

v.激怒 [to excite to impatience or anger]

v【病理學】使發炎, 使疼痛 [Pathology. to bring (a body part) to an abnormally excited or sensitive condition.]

   ps. 像是有些浴廁的清潔劑會讓眼睛有irritation.

 

字源:L irrītātus, ptp. of irrītāre "to arouse to anger, excite"

 

 

 

 

 

 

irritable

irrita(=L. irritare)-able

adj.易怒的,易煩躁不安的 [easily irritated or annoyed; readily excited to impatience or anger.]

  ex. The news made John irritable.
  這消息使約翰煩躁不安。

 

 

 

 

 

 

irritation

n.激怒 [ the act of irritating or the state of being irritated.]

n.刺激物;惱人事 [something that irritates.]

 

antidote:poisoning=balm:irritation
解毒劑消除中毒=安慰物消除疼痛

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

isolate

v.使孤立 [to set or place apart; detach or separate so as to be alone.]

  ex. Several villages have been isolated by lack of buses.
  由於缺少公車,有幾個村子顯得很偏僻。

v.【電】使絕緣 [Electricity. to insulate.]

n.孤立的人、事物

 

review p.270
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字根 insula==島

 

insul-ar     adj.島嶼的、與世隔離的

insul-ate      v.使絕緣   [ 防止熱,電或聲音的進出 ]

 

c.f

isolate      v.孤立                      [這個isol與島有關,注意字型--沒有n]

in-sol-ate  v.使暴露在陽光下        [字根sol=太陽,ex. solar太陽的]

 

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isotope

iso(equal)-tope(place)

n.同位素 -- 有相同數量的electron, proton, 但有不同數量的neutron.

 

字源:iso-+ G.k topos, place

這裡的意思是指在元素週期表(periodic table)中有同樣的位置

ex. isotope of Carbon 12C 13C ...在自然界都能stable

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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