assume & assumption

assume

as-sum(take)-e

v.假定

 

 

assumption

n.假定

 

ex. consume v. 花費

resume v.重新開始

summary n.摘要

 

USAGE:These verbs signify to take something for granted or as being a fact.

 

presume 客觀的假設  (但還沒有事實根據 )

To presume is to suppose that something is reasonable or possible in the absence of proof to the contrary:

"I presume you're tired after the long run"

[我假設:你會在長跑後疲倦]

 

presuppose 主觀的假設,預先的假設(預設)。

presuppose can mean to believe or suppose in advance:

"I presuppose students have background knowledge."

[我預設學生都瞭解背景知識]

 

postulate、posit  有事實根據的假設、較肯定。

postulate and posit denote the assertion of the existence, reality, necessity, or truth of something as the basis for reasoning or argument:

"We postulate that light speed is constant, because it could explain many results of experiment"

[我們假設光速是恆定的,因為它可以解釋很多實驗的結果]

 


assume  無事實根據的假設。

To assume is to accept something as existing or being true without proof or on inconclusive grounds

"We assume he won't be angry"

[我們假設他不會生氣]

 

 

 

 

 

 

assure & assured

assure

as(ad;to)-sure

v.向...保證; 使放心

  ex. We assure our clients of an enjoyable holiday.

 

 

 

assured

adj.確定的; 確信的

  ex. John was assured of her ability to solve the problem.
  約翰確信她有解決該問題的能力。

 

 

 

 

 

 

asterisk

aster(star)-isk

n.星號;星狀物

 

 

 

 

 

 

asteroid

aster(star)-oid(like)

Astronomy Any of numerous small celestial bodies that revolve around the sun, with orbits lying chiefly between Mars and Jupiter and characteristic diameters between a few and several hundred kilometers. Also called minor planet, planetoid.

-oid
a suffix meaning 「resembling,」 「like,」 used in the formation of adjectives and nouns (and often implying an incomplete or imperfect resemblance to what is indicated by the preceding element): alkaloid; anthropoid; cardioid; cuboid; lithoid; ovoid; planetoid.

 

 

 

 

 

asthma

n.氣喘

often allergic disorder of respiration, characterized by bronchospasm, wheezing, and difficulty in expiration, often accompanied by coughing and a feeling of constriction in the chest.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

astound

v.使震驚;使大驚

  ex. I was astounded that the mayor had taken bribes.
  市長接受賄賂,這使我大吃一驚。

  ex. astounding news

 

 

 

 

astray

a(無義;加強用)-stray(v.迷路,走失)

adj/adv.離開正確的;迷路的

  ex. We missed the track and went astray.
  我們走錯了道,迷路了。

adj/adv.誤入歧途的

  ex. The attractions of the big city soon led him astray.
  大城市的誘惑很快把他引上邪路。

 

 

 

 

 

astringent

adj.收縮的,止血的

n.收斂劑;止血藥

  note: 這個字是比較少使用,astringent是一種化學物質,可以使人體組織收縮,像是液體形式的astringent可以塗在皮膚上,來使皮膚收縮而停止流血。由於astringent通常味道是有點苦苦的(bitter),所以後來也有指某些批評很嚴苛的形容詞之用,當然這又是比較少見的使用方式了。 ( 2014 補充)

 

字根    

string   --> strang     ==  draw tight 拉緊 

strain

strict   

 

straight (特)      stress

strait             stretch

 

string     n.繩子

strain     v.拉緊    n.張力、壓力

strict   adj.嚴格的

 

con-strain     v.強迫[to force, compel]、拘禁[to confine forcibly]

con-strict     v.壓縮[To make smaller or narrower by squeezing.]

constringe  = constrict

 

 

 

*字根strain 特別指壓迫人

strain        n.壓力(壓迫人)

dis-strain    v.強制執行

re-strain     v.抑制[to hold back from action; repress: to restrain one's temper.]

                 v.監禁[to deprive of liberty]

比較

re-strict    v.限制[put a limit on...]

                    (Speed is restricted to 30 mph in towns.)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

astrolabe

astrolabe·nautical=colander·culinary 星盤·航海的=濾器·廚房用的

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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