7. Sentence simplify (paraphrase)
例如原文寫A need B，誘導答案就寫成 B need A
This basic fact of environmental circumstance has been the most pervasive influence in determining the social arrangements, and cultural practices of the people who have managed to settle and eke out a livelihood under what are, in most cases, very marginal conditions.
(a) Social arrangements and cultural practices have been the most important factors in determining how well the people have been able to eke out a living under basic environmental circumstances that were less than ideal
(b) The people's ability to survive under the difficult conditions they were faced with was influenced both by the basic environmental circumstances and by the social arrangement and cultural practices in the places they settled.
(C) The most important influence over the development of the social arrangements and cultural practices of the people who have managed to survive under conditions that are typically far from ideal had been this basics feature of their environment.
(D) The cultural and social characteristics of the island societies represented the most basic determining factors in how well the people were able to survive under environmental conditions that were difficult at best.
calm down, calm down.
basic fact of envir. circu. is important factors,
in determining in
1) social arrangment and
2) cultural practice of the people who~~~
「環境是強力的影響，它決定了social arrangements, cultural practices」
「最重要的影響關於social arrangments和cultrual practices是環境」
Developmental psychologists use specific research methods just as the psychologists of other fields.
(1) Developmental psychologist use the same methods as the psychologist in other fields.
(2) Psychologists use different methods to do research.
(3) Psychologists all have specifc research methods.
(4) The methods used by developmental psychologists and psychologists sometimes are different, and sometimes are the same.
ex. Outside his window in Kathmandu's cavernous royal palace, a pale sun is setting over the Himalayas, the day staff is leaving in a hushed file through the western gate and a flock of hundreds of ravens is settling noisily into the firs; as night falls, the birds in the royal gardens cease their cawing and a gloomy silence descends upon the dimly lit palace.
After an hour or so - the sun was rapidly sinking, the white clouds had turn red, the woods purple, the valleys black- a trumpet sounded.
Orlando leapt to his feet. (片語：跳了起來)
The shrill sound came from the valley.
It came from a dark spot down there; a spot compact and mapped out(安排); a town, yet girt(gird的過去式) about the walls; it came from the heart of his own great house in valley, which, dark before even as he looked and the single trumpet duplicated and reduplicated itself with other shriller sounds(此句插入句), lost its darkness and became pierced with lights.
Some were small hurry lights, as if servants dashed along corridors(走廊) to answer summonses; others were high and lustrous lights, as if they burn in empty banqueting halls made ready to receive guests who had not come, and others dipped and waved and sank and rose(rise的過去式), as if held in the hands of troops of serving men, bending, kneeling, rising, receiving, guarding, and escorting with all dignity indoors(adv.) a greet princess alighting(下來) form her chariot(四輪禮車).
Coaches turned and wheeled in the courtyard.
Horses tossed their plumes.
The Queen had come.
.... (下篇待續 )