treason    /ˋtrizn/

n.叛國罪 [The crime of betraying one's country, especially by attempting to kill the sovereign or overthrow the government]

  ex. In North Korea, one could be charged with treason just by defying their leader.


note: betray v.背叛

note: traitor n.背叛者, 賣國賊

synonym:  treachery ( 可數 ), treason ( 不可數)

betray 的 tray, traitor 的 trait 都可以追溯到相同的拉丁字 tradere




treachery    /'tretʃərɪ/

n.背叛 [Betrayal of trust]

  ex. Cheating is a treachery against the one you love.

 wiki: In 1952 Tomoya Kawakita, a Japanese-American dual citizen was convicted of treason and sentenced to death for having worked as an interpreter at a Japanese POW camp and having mistreated American prisoners. He was recognized by a former prisoner at a department store in 1946 after having returned to the United States. The sentence was later commuted to life imprisonment and a $10,000 fine. He was released and deported in 1963.






treacherous    /ˋtrɛtʃərəs/


adj.背叛的 [Guilty of or involving betrayal or deception]

   ex. The only way to save himself is to pass this treacherous forest.

 Taylor Swift (Acoustic) - Treacherous







treaty    /ˋtritɪ/

treat(to handle)-y

n. [A formally concluded and ratified agreement between countries.]

 ex. a bilateral investment treaty between the two countries.

 Wiki: The Sino-American Mutual Defense Treaty were ratified between the United States of America and the Republic of China, essentially prevented the People's Republic of China from taking over Taiwan during 1955–1979. Some of its content was carried over to the Taiwan Relations Act.






tremendous    /trɪˋmɛndəs/

trem( = tremble; to shake from fear) - endous (Latin suffix)

adj. [Very great in amount, scale, or intensity]

  ex. His leave brings tremendous uncertainty to the team's future.

  ex. A tremendous amount of stars is dying and be creating in our universe.

  note: 在口語中,tremendous 指的是very good.







tremor    /ˋtrɛmɚ/


n.不由自主的顫動 [An involuntary quivering movement]

  ex. His tremor issue forced him to quit the piano career. 

  ex. The prime minister's sex scandal sent a tremor to the whole country.

  ex. Multiple earthquake tremors happened during the mid night after the main one.






trenchant    /ˋtrɛntʃənt/

adj. [of comments, arguments, etc) strongly and effectively expressed]

   note: trench 原本是指在木頭上的刻痕,現在指的是壕溝。trenchant 則是是cutting有關,指的是言論一針見血。

   ex. Many people agree Huang Kuo-chang's(黃國昌) remarks are most trenchant among all the legislators.






trend    /trɛnd/

n.趨勢 [A general direction in which something is developing or changing]

  ex. A larger cellphone screen design is a growing trend. ( such as iphone6 plus )

v. [Change or develop in a general direction]

  ex. Unemployment has been trending upward.






trepidation    /ˏtrɛpəˋdeʃən/

n.恐懼, 憂慮 [A feeling of fear or agitation about something that may happen]

   note: tepid (no r), is an adjective: lukewarm.

   note: it is a hard and formal word, you can simply use 'fear'.

   ex. People consider telling truths about an important matter, such as coming out the closet, is a lot of trepidation. They fear the response from other people.





trespass    /ˋtrɛspəs/

v.非法侵入某人地 [Enter the owner's land or property without permission]

  note: 強調 to unlawfully enter one's property. 在美國會常有 'No trespassing' 的標示

  ex. The private orchard owner set  "No Trespassing" signs around the fence.





tribunal    /traɪˋbjunl/

n. [A court of justice]

  note: tribunal 廣義是指法庭,有權力去評斷爭議的機構或人。

  note. The Islamic Tribunal is a unique institution of its kind in the United States of America. Similar religious tribunals have existed for decades in the American Jewish and American Christian faith communities to resolve disputes, most especially within families. These religious tribunals are optional arbitration vehicles that only conduct their work when requested to do so by both parties involved in a dispute, do not attempt to impose any belief system upon any individual and work in compliance with State of Texas and US law under the United States Constitution.





tribute    /ˋtrɪbjut/

tribut( to give)-e

n. [An act, statement, or gift that is intended to show gratitude, respect, or admiration]

    note: something given or contributed voluntarily as due or deserved

    ex. When the superstars such as Michael Jason or Prince passed away, media paid tribute to reflect and remember the honor.

    note: Prince died on April 21, 2016.


note: contribute v.貢獻 ( to give together.)

review: encomium, eulogy, panegyric

eulogy n.讚辭  (p.184)
但是eulogy也可以用於生日的時候 (常見)
encomium n.讚辭  (p.173)
比較中性的詞,the praise of a person or thing.
panegyric n.讚辭
panegyric是非常formal的public speech,(在後來還可以指verse),
是用來highly prasie a person or thing.
在雅典,panegyric會出現在national festival or games






trickle    /ˋtrɪkl/

v.滴流 [(Of a liquid) flow in a small stream]

  ex. After winning the first prize, tears trickled down her cheeks.

n. [a small flow of liquid]

 <> spate n.洪水 (page 441)






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