adj. [strongly marked; clearly indicated; decided, unequivocal]

  ex. a pronounced dislike.

  ex. He was pronounced dead.








n. [support, esp a piece of wood, used to prevent sth falling or sagging]

  ex. Props were used to prevent the roof collapsing.

  ps. 後盾

v. [to support by placing something under or against ─ often used with up]

n. [stage props] 










v.繁殖  [ increase the number of (plants, animals, etc) by a natural process from the parent stock]

  ex. to propagate plants from seeds

  ex. Missionaries went far countries to propagate their faith.

ps. 物理上的意思








n. [the act or action of propagating --increase (as of a kind of organism) in numbers, or --the spreading of something (as a belief) abroad or into new regions]

  <> extirpation (p.194)











v. [to drive forward or onward by or as if by means of a force that imparts motion]

  ex. a boat propelled by oars 用槳劃的船

  ex. Our passions are the winds that propel our vessel. Our reason is the pilot that steers her. Without winds the vessel would not move and without a pilot she would be lost







n. 螺旋槳, 推進器




review (p.253)

字根 pel     peal(少)  == drive推



compel          v.強迫 

compulsion     n.強迫、強迫症  

compulsory   adj.強迫的  


expel           v.驅逐 [to drive or force out or away]  

expulsion      n.驅逐  

expulsive    adj.驅逐的  


**字根pel 多指外在的推,字根puls 多指內心中推;不過廣義來說是可通用的


impel        v.推前 [to drive or urge forward]  

impulse     n.衝動 [a sudden desire] = impetus = impulsion  


repel        v.擊退   [to drive or force back]     re-做back解  

repulse     v.回絕










pro-pens(掛著)-ity   提前掛在心上

n. [a natural tendency or disposition]

  ex. having a propensity to laugh.

  ps. predilection n.偏愛

       predisposition n. 性向; 癖性; 易患某病之身心素質









prophet   pronounced the same as profit

n.預言者; 預言家 [person who tells, or claims to be able to tell, what will happen in the future ]









adj.預言的, 預示的 [of, relating to, or characteristic of a prophet or prophecy ]

  ex. prophetic remarks








n.預言  [saying what will happen in the future ]


字源:from Gk. prophetia  "gift of interpreting the will of the gods," from prophetes




apocalypse n.啟示錄《聖經》中最後一卷, 記錄聖約翰關於世界末日的啟示. (p.30)


augury  n.預兆  (p.45)

presage n.惡兆 [sign that sth (esp sth unpleasant) will happen; omen] (p.373)



惡兆三兄弟 很多地方都有出現過

portend    v.預示; 惡兆 portent n. 預示; 惡兆 portentous adj.惡兆的
omen n/v.預示; 惡兆      ominous  adj.惡兆的
bode    v.預示; 惡兆        


ps. omen  has a negative connotation, a connotation absent from the word augury ; generally, augury bodes well for the future, an omen bodes ill


prescience   (p.373)

n.先見 [knowledge of events before they take place; foreknowledge]

  ps. It's more like a state of mind or level of expertise that allows for excellent foresight and planning.










propitiate    (prəˈpɪʃɪˌeɪt)

v.息怒; 撫慰 [ win the favour or forgiveness of (sb) (esp when he is angry) by a pleasing act]

 ex. to offer sacrifices to propitiate the gods. 


音: 虛~虛~ 別哭了









propitious   (prəˈpɪʃəs)


adj.吉利的 [giving or indicating a good chance of success; favorable ]

  ex. It was a propitious time to start a new business.

  ps. astrology, horoscope

  ps. auspicious (p.45)


音:bobi(台語;保佑) + yo~

字源:Earliest recorded form of the word is propitiatorium  "the mercy seat, place of atonement" (c.1200), translating Gk. hilasterion .











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