Oh Gosh! 變成Dr. 了, 8/1 開始PostDoc 工作。







adj.私有的 [intended for or restricted to the use of a particular person, group, or class]

  ps. private也可以指在當兵中的rank,private是最低階的。


字源:late 14c., from L. privatus  "set apart, belonging to oneself" (not to the state), used in contrast to publicus, communis

from L. privus  "one's own, individual"










n. [state of being alone or undisturbed; freedom from interference or public attention ]

  ex. A high wall round the estate protected their privacy. 莊園周圍有一堵高牆, 使他們不受外界打擾.







privation    /praɪˋveʃən/

n. [If you suffer privation or privations, you have to live without many of the things that are thought to be necessary in life, such as food, clothing, or comfort.]

  ps. it is an old-fashioned word, deprivation(p. 140) is more common.

  ex. His life of privation began to affect his health.


字源:mid-14c., "action of depriving,", from L. privationem  (nom. privatio ) "a taking away," from privatus,  pp. of privare  "deprive"

Meaning "want of life's comforts or of some necessity" is attested from 1790.










n.[a right or immunity granted as a peculiar benefit, advantage, or favor]

  ps.  if you have a library card, you have borrowing privileges.

  ps. 也可以當動詞:to privilege students from poor backgrounds


字源:from privus  "individual" + lex  (gen. legis ) "law." 也就是a law for just one person








v. [to search into and explore very thoroughly]

  ex. the police probed the man's disappearance.

  ex. to probe her finances to make sure that she has a good track record.

n.  [something that probes, examines, or tests]

   ex. space probe

字源:from M.L. proba  "examination," in L.L. "test, proof," from L. probare  (see prove).











n. [integrity and uprightness; honesty.]







proboscis    /prəˋbɑsɪs/

n. wiki: In general, a proboscis is an elongated appendage from the head of an animal, either a vertebrate or an invertebrate

n. [the trunk of an elephant.]


字源: First attested in English in 1609 from Latin proboscis, the latinisation of the Greek προβοσκίς (proboskis), which comes from πρό (pro) "forth, forward, before" + βόσκω (bosko), "to feed, to nourish"

ps. Proboscis monkey











pro(forth)-ceed(to go)-s

n.收入, 收益  (售物或從事某種表演活動等所獲得的) [money obtained by selling sth, presenting a performance,etc; profits]

  ex. They gave a concert and donated the proceeds to charity. 他們舉辦了一次音樂會, 把收入捐給了慈善機構.








n. [number of people, vehicles, etc moving along in an orderly way, esp as part of a ceremony or demonstration]

  ex. funeral procession

  ex. wedding procession




proceed  v.行進,繼續前進[go futher, go on]
proceeds  n.[money obtained by selling sth, presenting a performance,etc; profits ] ex. 演唱會的收入
procession  n.行列 [一群前進的人,軍人...]










v.宣告; 聲明 [make (sth) known officially or publicly in either speech or writing]

   ex. I proclaim the Olympic Games open.

   ps. proclamation 在之前只有指King的宣告唷。




review p.188


claim       v/n. (根據權利)要求、主張



acclaim    v. 歡呼、喝采(熱情地、公開地) [acclaim the winner of a race]





declaim   v.演說或朗誦(慷慨激昂地)                  [向下喊-->演說]


disclaim   v.放棄權利、拒絕承認(與別人的關係)  [宣稱claim 分離dis-->放棄] 

               (she disclaimed the ownership of the car)

               (to sign a disclaimer of liability.)





exclaim     v.驚叫、呼喊 (因疼痛、憤怒、驚奇) ; exclamation mark

                ex.  "stop" he exclaims.



proclaim    v.宣告、公佈  [to announce in an official or formal manner]

                 (proclaim a public holiday)       


reclaim     v.開墾土地, 喚回,(有call or bring sth. back 的意味存在)

            [to bring uncultivated areas into a condition for cultivation or other use]

             ex. Applicants can face delays in reclaiming their benefits when short-term jobs come to an end, potentially leaving them out of pocket, the report said.








procrastinate    /prəʊˈkræstɪˌneɪt/

pro(forth)-crastin(L. cars;tomorrow)-ate

v.拖延 [to put off intentionally the doing of something that should be done ]

  PS. procrastination通常是因為因為懶惰而的拖延,比方說寫報告的時候,沒什麼靈感,乾脆先來打場電好好了...然後就會發生procrastination了。









n. [a person appointed to keep watch over students at examinations.]

字源:procure-er的字型變化; from L. procuratorem  "manager, agent, deputy," from procurare  (see procure).







pro-cure(take care)

v. 取得某事物 (尤指費心或費力)[ obtain sth, esp with care or effort ]

  ex. The book is out of print and difficult to procure. 那書已絕版, 很難弄到手







n.獲得 [the act or process of procuring especially : the obtaining of military supplies by a government]

   ex. the procurement of goods, raw materials, supplies, weapons

   ex. The procurement of the weapons for the war is vital




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    page 377 剛出版了呢

    xination 於 2011/07/24 04:47 回覆