n.浮遊生物 [from wiki:Plankton (singular plankter) are any drifting organisms (animals, plants, archaea, or bacteria) that inhabit the pelagic zone of oceans, seas, or bodies of fresh water.]


Weird creatures feed on plankton - Blue Planet - BBC



c.f. plant and plank









plaque   [plæk]

n. [a thin, flat plate or tablet of metal, porcelain, etc., intended for ornament, as on a wall, or set in a piece of furniture.]

  ex. Commemorative plaque

  ex. Memorial Plaque

n.Atheromatous plaque,  Dental plaque...

  ex. artery:plaque(後者阻塞前者)


Atheroma in 60 seconds





plague = 瘟疫  有g的會葛屁~










plaster    [ ˈplæstər]

n.石膏 「from wiki:Plaster is a building material similar to mortar or cement. Like those materials, plaster starts as a dry powder that is mixed with water to form a paste which liberates heat and then hardens. Unlike mortar and cement, plaster remains quite soft after setting, and can be easily manipulated with metal tools or even sandpaper. These characteristics make plaster suitable for a finishing, rather than a load-bearing material.」

  ex. She broke her ankle weeks ago and it's still in plaster.


plast-er   n.石膏

plast-ic    n.塑膠 adj.塑膠的、有可塑性的










plateau   (ˈplætəʊ)

n.高原 [wiki: In geology and earth science, a plateau , also called a high plain or tableland, is an area of highland, usually consisting of relatively flat terrain.]

v. [to remain at a stable level for a relatively long period]

  考古: plateau has no change, no slope.












n.陳詞濫調; (尤指當作新內容或津津樂道的)老調重彈  [a flat, dull, or trite remark, especially one uttered as if it were fresh or profound.]

  ex. 老媽問道:「作業寫完了嗎?」





plaintiff    n.原告   //  defendant n.被告
plaintive a.可憐的    
complain v.抱怨    
complaint n.抱怨    
plain n.平原   adj.清楚的   // explain v.說明
plane n.平面     
plane.t n.行星    


plate  n.盤子               
plateau n.高原  
platform  n.站台  
plat-itude n.陳詞濫調  
plant n.植物 v.種植  
plantation n. 植園 (大規模人工種植的那種)  











adj. [of, pertaining to, or characteristic of Plato  or his doctrines]

adj. [purely spiritual; free from sensual desire, especially in a relationship between two persons of the opposite sex.]

  ex. Platonic love(柏拉圖式愛情)  : Platonic love in this original sense of the term is examined in Plato's dialogue the Symposium, which has as its topic the subject of love or Eros generally. In short, with genuine platonic love, the beautiful or lovely other person inspires the mind and the soul and directs one's attention to spiritual things.






plaudit   (ˈplɔːdɪt)

n. [an enthusiastic expression of approval]

  ex. She won plaudits for the contribution  of education.


from L. applaud

   laud  v.讚美 









plausible   /ˈplɔzəbəl/

adj. [superficially fair, reasonable, or valuable but often specious]

  ex. An explanation or statement that is plausible seems likely to be true or valid.

adj. [superficially pleasing or persuasive]



from L. applaud, "seeming to approve "







plead    /plid/

v. [make repeated urgent requests]

   ex. plead for mercy 祈求發慈悲 

   ex. He pleaded with his parents for a more understanding attitude. 他求父母多加諒解.


v.向法庭陳述(案情) [present (a case) to a court of law ]

  ex. to plead ignorance ; he pleaded that he was insane.

  ex. he intended to plead insanity, ie that he was insane and therefore not responsible for his actions.


mid-13c., "make a plea in court," from Anglo-Fr. pleder , O.Fr. pleider, plaidier , "agreement, discussion, lawsuit," from M.L. placitare , from L.L. placitum  (see plea). Sense of "request, beg" first recorded late 14c.









pledge    /plɛdʒ/

n. [solemn promise]

  ps. pledge is a warrant or assurance, now used especially in fund-raising for charitable purposes.

  ex. give a pledge never to reveal the secret 保證決不泄密.

n.保證物  [thing left with a person to be kept until the giver has done sth promised, eg paid a debt; article left with a pawnbroker in exchange for sth, esp money]

  ex. put my car in pledge .. take my car out of pledge


v. [promise solemnly to give (support,etc) as a pledge]

  ex. 祝酒: pledge the bride and bridegroom 向新娘和新郎祝酒.








n. [ a fold in cloth made by doubling material over on itself]

  from wiki: A pleat is a type of fold formed by doubling fabric back upon itself and securing it in place. It is commonly used in clothing and upholstery(室內裝潢) to gather a wide piece of fabric to a narrower circumference








plenitude   (ˈplɛnəˌtjuːd)


n. [fullness or adequacy in quantity, measure, or degree; abundance.]

  ex. a plenitude of food, air, and sunlight

  ex. The music brought him a feeling of plenitude and freedom.







plethora   (ˈplɛθərə)

n. [superfluity or excess; overabundance]






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