Oh Gosh! 變成Dr. 了, 8/1 開始PostDoc 工作。






adj. [having a disparaging, derogatory, or belittling effect or force:]

  ex. the pejorative affix -ling,  in princeling.

  <> laudatory

  ps. Pejoratives (or terms of abuse) are words or grammatical forms which denote a negative effect; that is, they express the contempt or distaste of the speaker.







n.不義之財 [derogatory  money or wealth, esp if dishonestly acquired; lucre p.296]


字源:from古法文 pelfre, 戰利品。





adv. 亂七八糟地 [in disorderly, headlong haste; in a recklessly hurried manner.]

  ex. The children rushed pell-mell down the stairs. 孩子們亂鬨哄地衝下樓去.





adj. [= limpid, extremely clear in style and meaning;]

  ex. pellucid water


In the field of optics, transparency (also called pellucidity or diaphaneity) is the physical property of allowing light to pass through a material;translucency (also called translucence or translucidity) only allows light to pass through diffusely. The opposite property is opacity.


quick review

limpid limpid eyes,  limpid writing   p. 292

lucida lucid explanation,  Lucid Dreaming     p.296









n. [a punishment imposed or incurred for a violation of law or rule.]







v.對...處罰 [to impose a penalty on (someone), as for breaking a law or rule]

  ex. People who drive when they are drunk should be heavily penalized. 對酒醉開車者應予重罰.







n. [voluntary self-punishment to atone for a sin, crime, etc]

Penance is repentance of sins

The word penance derives from Old French and Latin poenitentia, both of which derive from the same root meaning repentance, the desire to be forgiven.


penitent  p.249 adj. [feeling or expressing sorrow for sin or wrongdoing and disposed to atonement and amendment; repentant; contrite.]

Pietro Antonio Rotari (1707–1762) was an Italian painter of the Baroque period.



Penance (film trailer)


plot: A young mother decides to become a stripper to earn some fast cash only to find her worst nightmares are about to begin when she falls into the hands of a religious fanatic intent on changing her evil ways.






n. [a strong inclination, taste, or liking for something; fondness, preference]

  ex.a penchant for outdoor sports.


Etymology:1672, from Fr. penchant,  properly the prp. of O.Fr. pencher  "to incline," from V.L. *pendicare,  a frequentative formed from L. pendere  "to hang"

Lady Susana had a penchant for crazy hats!

Lady Susana had a penchant for crazy hats!

Photo by Marvin Joseph, Staff Photographer to The Washington Post, © 2006






adj. [about to take place;imminent.]

adj. [not yet decided : being in continuance]

  ex. your application status: pending







n. [a body mounted so that it can swing freely under the influence of gravity. It is either a bob hung on a light thread ( simple pendulum ) or a more complex structure ( compound pendulum )]






quick review

字根 pens pend  == hang down 掛 or weigh 稱...的重量




expend //  expense n.開支   // expensive adj.昂貴的

pension  n.退休金

spend    v.花(錢);花(時間,精力)







v.穿過 [to pierce or pass into or through]

  ex.The bullet penetrated the wall.

  ex. It was impossible to penetrate the mystery.


ps. 這個字有在sexual上的用法









n. 盤尼西林, 青黴素



ps. Penicillin (sometimes abbreviated PCN or pen) is a group of antibiotics derived from Penicillium fungi. Penicillin antibiotics are historically significant because they are the first drugs that were effective against many previously serious diseases such as syphilis(梅毒) and Staphylococcus infections. Penicillins are still widely used today, though many types of bacteria are now resistant. All penicillins are Beta-lactam antibiotics and are used in the treatment of bacterial infections caused by susceptible, usually Gram-positive, organisms.

The term "penicillin" can also refer to the mixture of substances that are naturally, and organically, produced.


The discovery of penicillin is attributed to Scottish scientist and Nobel laureate Alexander Fleming in 1928. He showed that, if Penicillium notatum were grown in the appropriate substrate, it would exude a substance with antibiotic properties, which he dubbed penicillin. This serendipitous observation began the modern era of antibiotic discovery. The development of penicillin for use as a medicine is attributed to the Australian Nobel laureate Howard Walter Florey together with the German Nobel laureate Ernst Chain and the English biochemist Norman Heatley.


ps. An antibacterial is a substance that kills bacteria or slows their growth. It is sometimes used as a synonym for "antibiotic", but this term is more properly applied to the broader category of antimicrobial compounds


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