summon    /ˋsʌmən/

v.召集 [send a message telling sb to come]

  ex. He has been summoned to appear in court on charges of incitement to lawbreaking.

  ex. It took her a full month to summon the courage to tell her mother.

  note: 在知名電玩Final Fantasy中的招換獸,就是summon(s).


 類似的字有: call, convoke, convene, muster.



convoke 使用的場合像是召集一群人來制訂法律,ex. to convoke a constituent assembly,來召開修憲的會議。

convene, 則跟 convoke類似,也是指來一起開會,但不會專指在法律上,ex. Nuclear physicists convene in April APS meeting.

最後一個muster 是帶有軍事使用意味的召集。 ex. Russia musters troops near the boarder of Ukraine.







sumptuous    /ˋsʌmptʃʊəs/

adj.奢侈的, 華麗的 [extremely costly, rich, luxurious, or magnificent]

   類似的字:luxurious, lavish, deluxe (adj.)

   ex. We reserved a sumptuous hotel during the trip to London. In our room there is elegant decoration on the wall, and the bed is soft and quaint, just like we were really living in Buckingham Palace.

  note: sumptuous 的 字根 sum 與 consume的 sum 都是指 to take的意思,








sunder    /ˋsʌndɚ/

v.分離 [to separate; part; divide; sever.]

   note: sunder是比較進階少用,屬於叫文學上的說法。sunder常用在被動式。

  ex. North and South Korean were sundering into irrevocable conflict.

  ps. irrevocable (see p.279) adj.不能改變的, 永久的。







superb    /sʊˋpəb/

super(above, over)-b

adj.一級棒的 [marked to the highest degree by grandeur, excellence, brilliance, or competence ]

   ex. What a superb performance. The kid with physical challenge finishes a very hard piano performance. It is so touching that everyone standing up applause with tears in their eyes.

  ex. There is no doubt that he can receive the outstanding teaching award every year in our college. His superb lecturing makes all students to learn physics like watching a thrilling movie.

 ex. The taste of this chocolate from Japan is superb, I cherish each small bite of it.







supercilious    /ˏsupɚˋsɪlɪəs/


adj.自高自大的  [thinking or showing that one thinks one is better than other people ]

   note: 拉丁字組成的意思是在眼皮或是眉毛之上的,指的就是很自高自大的。 類似的字有arrogant, disdainful

  ex. Our KMT law makers are supercilious to think China trade pact will be definitely profitable for all Taiwanese people. So that they only spend 30 seconds to examine the content of the trade pact.

  ex. To be a good teammate, one should never be supercilious and never consider other members are less important than him.







superficial    /supɚˋfɪʃəl/


adj.表面的, 膚淺的

  ex. Beauty is not superficial, but showing off how beautiful her sexy body is superficial; the true beauty won't fade away by time.

  ex. Although it sounds like a cliche that a woman's appearance is just a superficial factor of attracting men, cosmetic industry markets that women should treat them better and attracting men becomes a second or subsidiary advantage.





superficiality    /supɚfɪʃɪ'ælətɪ/


n.表面性的事物;  淺薄

  ex. When approaching a girl, a nice guy will stay in the comfort zone that leads to a lengthy talk of superficiality. In the other hand, a good guy tends to challenge a girl and doesn't avoid sexual escalation. 







superfluous    /sʊˋpəflʊəs/


adj.多餘的, 過量的 [more than is needed or wanted]

  note: 超過流出杯麵的水,那就真是是太多了. 類似的字 redundant, excessive.

  ex. In this international meeting my presence seems superfluous since I cannot speak Spanish nor understand Spanish.

  ex. We should not buy another toaster! It will be a superfluous dust-collector only. We already have 5 toasters at home.






superfluity    /supɚˋfluɪ/


n.多餘 [something unnecessary or superfluous]







superimpose    /ˏsupərɪmˋpoz/


v.重疊上去 [put sth on top of sth else, esp so that what is underneath can still be seen, heard, etc]

  note: 特別是指照片、圖片的疊上








superintend     /ˏsupərɪnˋtɛnd/

super-intend( give attention to)

v.管理,監督 [ to be in charge of something and make sure that everything is working, being done, etc. as it should be  ]

  note: superintend,是較少使用的字,它本身比較文言,類似的字有 supervise, oversee, overlook ( more on page 338)

  ex. He superintends the building work, meaning he has to check the safety of the working environment and the status of the building progress, meanwhile manages the budget.







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