suffice    /səˋfaɪs/


v.使滿足 [to be enough or adequate, as for needs, purposes, etc.]

  note: suffice字根上的解釋可以想成去做某些事物,而來滿足底下的目的 ( to meet of need of), 類似的動詞還有 to satisfy, to content.

  ex. For the DPP to win the municipal election in Taipei, common strategies don't suffice to make it. They need a miracle.


  常見片語 suffice it to say (that)... (used to suggest that even though one could say more, what one does say should be enough to show what one means)

  ex. Suffice it to say this baseball player has undergone 3 times surgery, and many people expect he cannot be in the roster, not mentioning he is getting old as well. (就單單這位棒球選手已經經歷過了三次手術就足夠而不必在多說了,許多人都預期他不能在名單上,更不用說他年紀也大了)







sufficient    /səˋfɪʃənt/


adj.足夠的 [enough]

  ex. We don't have sufficient time to finish this homework set, and so we ask our professor to give us an extension.

  ex. It is raining, and the road is wet.  "raining" is the sufficient condition to "the wet road".  When it does rain, the road must be wet. But when it doesn't rain, the road can be either wet or not wet, due to another contribution. The previous statement happens, and then the latter statement must happen.







suffocate    /ˋsʌfəˏket/

v.窒息而死 [to kill by preventing the access of air to the blood through the lungs or analogous organs, as gills.]

   ex. The stupid and boring news on all the TV channels suffocates my creativity. (及物動詞的用法)

   ex. several people suffocated in that burning hotel. ( 不及物動詞的用法)


   suffocating adj.

   ex. Detroit Piston was once a NBA team boasting his suffocating defense and won the 2004 championship.


asphyxiate v.窒息    /əs‚fɪksɪ'eɪʃn/

smother v.窒息而死

drown  v. 溺死







suffrage   /ˋsʌfrɪdʒ/

n. [the right to vote, especially in a political election.]

  ex. People are seeking universal franchise/suffrage for the next president election. 

  ex. Men and women alike should have the same suffrage to express their opinions. Sex should not be a factor to cause social strata.


  note: franchise  n. /ˋfræntʃaɪz/, 這個字來字法文的freedom, 指的是有特別的法律權,然後演化成指選舉權,指的是政府給於的權力。 在商業術語中指加盟經營的意思,概念是指總公司給於的權力,比方說你想開飲料,你可以選擇成立個加盟店,當然是需要付出費用的。

  ex. He rearranges his old house and now  becomes a 7-11 franchise holder. And of course he needs to pay the fee to the parent company.

  字源:from L. suffragium "support, vote, right of voting," from suffragari "lend support, vote for someone," from sub "under" + fragor "crash, din, shouts (as of approval),"









suffuse    /səˋfjuz/


v.瀰漫於某物, 佈滿 [to spread all over or through somebody/something]

  ex. The aroma from ripe strawberry suffuses the kitchen.

  ex.  His bright and joyful personality soon lets the delightful laughter suffuse with the room.

  note: 類似的字有 spread, permeate, saturate

  note. 相同fuse字根的例如:effuse, infuse










suggestive    /səg'dʒɛstɪv/


adj.提示性的 [giving a suggestion; indicative]

  ex. Although we don't have any direct evidence yet, this is suggestive evidence of life on other planets.

  ex. All found material evidence is suggestive of President accepting bribes, but no crucial evidence can substantiate this claim yet.

  note: suggestive, 也有指性暗示的

  ex. A suggestive remark is one kind of sexual harassment.










  note: suitcase比較扁,且是長方形的。 Luggage 是指行李箱.









sulky   /'sʌlkɪ/

adj. [bad-tempered or not speaking because you are angry about something] = sullen

  ex. My mom looked sulky all last evening, because my father was late to pick her up home after work.

  ex. My sister looks sulky especially when her period comes.


  note:要細分的話, sulky 有一種孩子氣的感覺,會為了些小事而心情不好。

  類似的字: dour, gloomy, morose, petulant, somber








sullen    /ˋsʌlən/

adj. [bad-tempered or not speaking because you are angry about something] = sulky

  ex. Passengers appeared sullen when hearing another delay for their flight, but they later felt better after getting some compensation.


  note:要細分的話, sullen是指的是沈默而不跟人social的那種壞心情。

  ex. Two brothers remain in sullen silence; no one wants to talk each other and, of course, no one wants to apologize first.








sultry    /ˋsʌltrɪ/

adj.濕熱 [hot and damp]=sweltering.

  ex. People generally hate the hot gas released by automobiles or motorcycles on the road in cities. The sultry air , floating dust, and unremitting noise make summer even harder to get along with. But in the other hand, people like to take a traditional Finnish Sauna bath in winter, where the sultry air becomes salubrious.

  note: a sultry look, 指的是很sexy的外表,會讓人全身發熱有身體反應的。









summary    /ˋsʌmərɪ/

sum(whole; adding up)-ary

n.摘要 [brief statement of the main points of sth]

  note: 類似的字有: outline, recap

  ex. In TOEFL reading part, there is a summary test for each reading. You are requested to select the right main points from the reading.

  ex. A good summary in a presentation should be able to help the audience take out the most important information you want to convey. That is also true for any formal writing, such as SOP.


adj.即刻作出的 [done or given immediately, without attention to details or formal procedure]

  ex. Should we give our children summary punishment when they make a mistake? Or should we spend time to understand the view point from our children first, and then explain why we think they are doing wrong?















summation    /sʌmˋeʃən/


n.加總 [the act or process of forming a sum]

  ex. In Math the summation notation is capital sigma.

\sum_{i \mathop =m}^n a_i = a_m + a_{m+1} + a_{m+2} +\cdots+ a_{n-1} + a_n.


n.總結 [a final part of an argument reviewing points made and expressing conclusions]

  ex. One advocator rushed to give a quick summation, by exclaiming the group's slogan, "People need universal suffrage".






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