v. [make sth turn round] or [move round]
ex. spin a top 轉陀螺
ex. The Earth spins (rotates) once in around 24 hours.
ex. My head was spinning from the wine. ( confusing)
adj. [very long or tall and thin]
ex. spindly legs.
ps. spindle n.紡錘 [thin rod on which thread is twisted or wound by hand in spinning]
n.脊椎 [ backbone, row of bones along the back of humans and some animals]
ps. the backbone of the universe.
ps. vertebrate adj. 有脊椎 n.脊椎動物
(from L. vertebra + ate, 與轉動有關, 在古代人的觀念中能認為轉動(turn)是由於有關節(joint)的緣故，因此才會讓脊椎與轉扯上關係。)
Body Positions Affecting the spine and discs
adj. [ having no spine]
adj. [being lacking strength of character, resolution, or courage]
ex. spineless politicians
ps. invertebrate n.無脊椎動物 adj.無脊椎的 n. 無骨氣的人 (p.277)
adj.多刺的 [covered with or having spines, thorns, or prickles]
ex. a spiny cactus.
ps. 也可以指涉問題麻煩的、困難的. ex. a spiny problem.
n.尖塔 [pointed structure in the form of a tall cone or pyramid, esp on a church tower]
note: 字根spir 有呼吸的意思,也代表的靈魂. ex. inspire, respiration
adj.精神的; 心靈的 [of the human spirit or soul; not of physical things]
ex. She lived entirely by spiritual values, in a world of poetry and imagination.
note: corporeal adj.肉體的、物質的 [bodily, physical] (p.117)
adj. [of the Church or of religion]
ex. The Pope is the spiritual leader.
n. [petty ill will or hatred with the disposition to irritate, annoy]
ex. She said "you are stupid" just out of her spite, it is not the fact.
動詞的用法： to spite her by spreading gossips.
note: spite是來自於despite 的縮減, de是down, spite的發展與spic (look有關)，整體的概念就是a looking down on sth. 是輕視的意涵，而後的發展就變成了這邊看到的『petty ill will'
ps. in spite of sth = despite sth, 這邊做介係詞用，意思是不管什麼東東，源由於你輕視他們的意思，沒瞧他們在眼裡。
ex. In spite of raining, he still goes out to do jogging.
ps. respite n.[A respite is a short period of rest from something unpleasant.] p.408
ps. spleen的功用有除去old red blood cells, 還有作為 a reserve of blood.
n. [malice; spite; bad temper] ( we don't use it in modern day)
n. [ magnificence ]
ex. the splendor of the view at the Grand Canyon.
ps. 形容詞為splendid, 是個很好用的字。
[beautiful, impressive, and extremely well made] or [very good, marvellous ]
ex. The young women are splendidly dressed.
ex. splendid sunset
The Luxe novel series的最後一部:splendor的封面。作者為：Anna Godbersen
v. [to join together or unite (two ropes or parts of a rope) by the interweaving of strands.]
ps. 現代中，我們比較會看到的是gene splicing，也有部電影的title就叫做SPLICE.
Splice Official Trailer
n. [a thin sliver of wood]
n. [a thin piece of wood or other rigid material used to immobilize a fractured or dislocated bone, or to maintain any part of the body in a fixed position. ]
v.分裂 [separate into parts or portions]
ex. to split logs with an axe.
ex. Your pants split.
ex. For the purposes of the survey we've split the town into four areas.
ex. John has just split up with his girl-friend.
n. [act or process of splitting or being split]
n. [division or separation resulting from splitting]
n. [an ostentatious effort, display, or expenditure]
ps. 是最早的字義，基本上就是 show-off 。
n. [any act of immoderate indulgence]
ps. spend a lot of money on things you don't really need it.
ex. He never got his pilot's license—buying a plane might have been too much of a splurge.
v. [to spend (money) lavishly or ostentatiously(p.336)]
etymology：可能是splash + surge的組合字
v. [make (sth) useless, valueless or unsatisfactory; ruin]
ex. This scandal spoiled his political career.
ex. Holiday is spoiled by bad weather.
也可以指食物壞掉了： Fats spoil by becoming rancid.
ex. Grandparents are often tempted to spoil their grandchildren whenever they come to visit.
note: 也可以延伸成自己寵自己. ( to indulge)
ex.Spoil yourself with a new perfume this summer.
note: spoil的字源來自於搶奪(plunder)， 所以有時候你會看到spoil當名詞時可以當戰利品
n. [a radial member of a wheel, joining the hub(p.241) to the rim]
note: speak v. 的過去式
note: spike n.長釘