polemic   (pəˈlɛmɪk)

n. [an argument or controversy, esp over a doctrine, belief, etc]

adj. [of or involving dispute or controversy]


字源:from Gk. polemikos  "warlike, belligerent"

wiki: A polemic (pronounced /pəˈlɛmɪk/) is a variety of argument or controversy made against one opinion, doctrine, or person. Other variations of argument are debate and discussion. The word is derived from the Greek polemikos (πολεμικός), meaning "warlike, hostile"

unlike debate, which may seek common ground between two parties, a polemic is intended to establish the supremacy of a single point of view by refuting an opposing point of view.

Polemic journalism was common in continental Europe, when libel laws were not as stringent.





adj. [Polemical means arguing very strongly for or against a belief or opinion.]







v.磨光、擦亮   [to make smooth and glossy, esp. by rubbing or friction]

n. [a substance used to give smoothness or gloss]

  ex. shoe polish.

ps. Anything from or related to Poland, a country in Europe


可以review *~nish系列 p.217

polish    v.磨光、擦亮 



burnish   v.擦亮、給金屬拋光  [跟polish意思一樣]





n. [the casting, recording, or counting of votes in an election; a voting]

  ex. The result of the poll has now been declared. 選舉結果已經公佈

n. opinion poll; a canvassing of a representative sample of a large group of people on some question in order to determine the general opinion of the group.

  wiki: Opinion polls for many years were maintained through telecommunications or in person-to-person contact.


review p.72




  ex. They canvassed voters for the Republicans.



toss in a canvas sheet

源自canvas ( n.帆布 ) ,原來的民意調查結果是寫在帆布上的。






n. [a person whose occupation is the taking of public-opinion polls.]

  ex. TVBS民調






n.花粉 [fine powder formed in flowers, which fertilizes other flowers when carried to them by the wind, insects, etc]





pollen-ate   e弱化成i

v. 對...授粉 [to carry out the pollination of ]

  ex. Many of the indigenous insects are needed to pollinate the local plants.






n.宏偉壯觀的景象(尤指群眾場面)[splendid display or magnificence, esp at a public event]

  ex. the pomp the State Opening of Parliament. 國會揭幕的盛況

  ps. 也有指"不必要和無意義的鋪張和排場" 

  ps. Pomp Rock 華麗搖滾 (or = Arena rock)


wiki: A Queen concert in Drammen, Norway in 1982, showing the scale and lighting of an arena rock concert(pomp rock)






adj. [exaggeratedly or ostentatiously(<-check p.336) dignified or self-important]

  ex. a pompous official 自命不凡的官員


prompt adj.敏捷的、及時的


pompous adj.愛炫耀的、浮誇的 (他因敏捷的身手而變得浮誇)







n. [the quality of being pompous.]






n. [wiki: A poncho is an outer garment designed to keep the body warm, or it made from a watertight material, to keep dry during rain. Ponchos has been used by native american peoples of the Andes since Pre-Hispanic times and is nowadays considered a typical South American garment.]


音:cho~酋: 酋長穿得poncho







v. [to consider something deeply and thoroughly]

v. [to weigh carefully in the mind; consider thoughtfully]

  ex. to ponder their chances of success


root pond ...pend

字源:from O.Fr. ponderare  "to weigh, poise," from L. ponderare  "to ponder, to consider," lit. "to weigh," from pondus  (gen. ponderis ) "weigh". Meaning "to weigh a matter mentally" is attested from late 14c.

還記得我們說過字根pend, pond是hang, or  weigh的意思嗎(想像個天平),ponder也是跟weigh有關的唷,他的概念是"在心中秤秤看(to weigh in the mind )",也就是思考,比方說"在心中秤秤看成功的機率有多少"





adj.值得一想的 [significant enough to be worth considering .]

  ex. ponderable <> inappreciable(too small to be perceived p.32)





adj.笨重的 [of great weight; heavy; huge]

  ex. a fat man's ponderous movements 胖男人的笨拙動作.

  ps. 也用於形容文章或講話風格冗長,笨重。

adj. [unwieldy or clumsy because of weight and size ]









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