plunder (ˈplʌndə)

v.掠奪 [to rob of goods or valuables by open force, as in war, hostile raids, brigandage, etc. =loot ]

ex. to plunder a town.

ex. soldiers killing and looting wherever they went

ps. 比方說海盜在洗劫某個小鎮,就是用plunder這個字來說明這個動作的。

n. [that which is taken in plundering; loot .]

 

字源:1632, from M.H.G. plunderen  "to plunder," originally "to take away household furniture," from plunder  "household goods, clothes"; A word acquired by English via the Thirty Years War and applied in native use after the outbreak of the Civil War in 1642. The noun meaning "goods taken by force" is from 1647.

c.f. pander p.342

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

plunge (plʌndʒ)

v.俯衝 [to cause to penetrate or enter quickly and forcibly into something ]

ex. plunged the dagger.

ex. plunge (one's hand) into cold water

...還有一些其他的意思

 

字源:from L. plumbum "lead". Original notion perhaps is of a sounding lead or a fishing net weighted with lead.

plunge v.跳入、俯衝
lung n.肺
  (空氣俯衝進入肺中)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

plush (plʌʃ)

n. [a fabric with a cut pile that is longer and softer than velvet]

from wiki: Modern plush are commonly manufactured from synthetic fibres such as polyester. One of the largest uses of this fabric is in the production of toys, with small stuffed animals made from plush fabric, such as teddy bears, known as plushies.

 

adj.豪華的 [informal  Also: plushy  lavishly appointed; rich; costly]

 

plush n.長毛絨  a.[口]豪華的,奢侈的
lush a.翠綠茂盛的
  (耶誕節到了,到處充滿了翠綠茂盛的的聖誕樹及豪華的裝飾品)
  (lush and plush decorations)

 

 

c.f.

flush v.沖水、臉紅

blush v.臉紅

(上廁所沖水(flush)時,被人看到了很不好意思(blush))

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

plutocracy (pluːˈtɒkrəsɪ)

pluto ( Gk. ploutos ;  wealth)-cracy

n. [Plutocracy is rule by the wealthy, or power provided by wealth.]

ps. Before the equal voting rights movement managed to end it in the early 20th century, many countries used a system where rich persons had more votes than poor.

 

autocracy p.46

(ɔːˈtɒkrəsɪ)

government in which one person has uncontrolled or unlimited authority over others; the government or power of an absolute monarch.

aristocracy p.36

(ˌærɪˈstɒkrəsɪ)

government by the best individuals or by a small privileged class

bureaucracy p.68

(bjʊəˈrɒkrəsɪ)

an organizational structure characterized by adherence to standardized procedure.

gerontocracy p.220

(ˌdʒɛrɒnˈtɒkrəsɪ)

government by old people

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

pod

n.豆莢 [long seed-case of various plants, esp peas and beans]

 

聯想: pod-也是個Geek字根,是指foot , 你也可以想成豆莢兩片長長的很像腳。

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

podiatrist (p ə ˈdaiətrɪst)

pod(foot)-iatry( Gk. iatros ; heal)-ist

n. [a person qualified to diagnose and treat foot disorders.]

 

聯想:podiatrist是治療o型腿的, cf. pediatrist

Podiatric Medicine: A Career That Fits Your Future

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

podium

pod(foot)-ium [給腳站的地方]

n.講臺 [ a small platform for the conductor of an orchestra, for a public speaker, etc.]

ps. 像給管絃樂的指揮者站的那個小檯子,就叫podium,他是一個小平台。或是賽車手頒獎時,那個小檯子,也可以叫podium; 奧運頒獎的檯子也叫做podium唷。

wiki: In many forms of motorsport, the three top-placed drivers in a race stand on a podium for the trophy ceremony.

 

 

review p.288

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

poignant (ˈpɔɪnjənt)

adj. [pungently pervasive; painful to physical or mental feeling]

ex.a poignant perfume

 

 

poignant adj.辛酸的,慘痛的、氣味濃烈的

point n.尖、點

(這一點讓人想辛酸的過往)

 

c.f.

PUNGENT, PIQUANT, POIGNANTmean sharp and stimulating to the mind or the senses.

pungent  

 

pungent  implies a sharp, stinging, or biting quality especially of odors

ex. a cheese with a pungent odor.

piquant  

 

adj. agreeably pungent or sharp in taste or flavor

piquant suggests a power to whet the appetite or interest through tartness or mild pungency <a piquant sauce>.

poignant  

 

adj. affecting one's feelings deeply, making one sad, full of pity, etc

poignant suggests something is sharply or piercingly effective in stirring one's emotions <felt a poignant sense of loss>.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

poise /pɔɪz/

v. [balance especially to hold or carry in equilibrium]

ex. to carry a water jar poised on one's head

n. [a stably balanced state;  easy self-possessed assurance of manner]

 

兩個一起背:

pose   n.姿勢
po i se   v.使平衡 n.鎮定
    ex. The gymnast poised herself on the balance beam gracefully.
    (調整姿勢使平衡)

 

ps. review p.99 composure

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

poisonous (ˈpɔɪzənəs)

poison-ous

adj. [capable of killing or inflicting injury; venomous]

ex. a large cloud of poisonous gas.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

poke

v.戳

ex. poke the fire (with a poker), ie to make it burn more strongly

ex. Poke two holes in the sack so you can see through it. 在袋子上戳兩個洞就能透過它看了.

 

 

poker

n. one that pokes especially by a metal rod for stirring a fire.

n.撲克牌

ps. poker-face 無表情的面孔 ... Lady Gaga的歌

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

polar

adj.(南, 北)極的  [of or pertaining to the North or South Pole.]

adj.比喻人或物之間條件看法等的分歧, 對立

ex. polar positions on the issue

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

polarize

v.使極化 [to divide into sharply opposing factions, political groups, etc.]

ex. Public opinion has polarized on this issue.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

polarity

n. [If there is a polarity between two people or things, they are completely different from each other in some way. ]

ex. the ideological polarity between nations.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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