pittance     (ˈpɪtəns)


n. [a small portion, amount, or allowance also : a meager wage or remuneration]

 <>cornucopia p.117


字源:early 13c., "pious donation to a religious house or order to provide extra food," from O.Fr. pitance  "portion of food allowed a monk or poor person by a pious bequest," lit. "pity," from pitié  (see pity). Meaning "small amount, portion" first recorded 1560s.





placate    (plˈkeɪt)


v. [to soothe or mollify especially by concessions]

  ex. He smiled, and made a gesture intended to placate me.

  ex. to placate an outraged citizen.



ps. review p.341






placebo   (pləˈsiːbəʊ)

n. [a substance having no pharmacological effect but given merely to satisfy a patient who supposes it to be a medicine. or a substance having no pharmacological effect but administered as a control in testing experimentally or clinically the efficacy of a biologically active preparation.]


wiki: placebo effect

The phenomenon of an inert substance resulting in a patient's medical improvement is called the placebo effect. The phenomenon is related to the perception and expectation which the patient has; if the substance is viewed as helpful, it can heal, but if it is viewed as harmful, it can cause negative effects, which is known as the nocebo effect.




placid    plæsɪd


adj. [pleasantly calm or peaceful; unruffled; tranquil; serenely quiet or undisturbed]

  ex. placid skies

  ex. cows placidly chewing grass





plagiarism   (ˈpleɪdʒəˌrɪzəm)

n. [the unauthorized use or close imitation of the language and thoughts of another author and the representation of them as one's own original work.]

  ex. Now he's in real trouble. He's accused of plagiarism.

1621, from L. plagiarius  "kidnapper, seducer, plunderer,"




v. [to steal and pass off (the ideas or words of another) as one's own; use (another's production) without crediting the source ]

  ex.He has plagiarized most of the book.





plague   (pleɪɡ)

n. [an epidemic disease that causes high mortality; pestilence]

  wiki: Plague is a deadly infectious disease that is caused by the enterobacteria Yersinia pestis, named after the French-Swiss bacteriologist Alexandre Yersin. Primarily carried by rodents (most notably rats) and spread to humans via fleas, the disease is notorious throughout history, due to the unrivaled scale of death and devastation it brought. Until June 2007, plague was one of only three diseases specifically reportable to the World Health Organization (the two other ones were cholera and yellow fever).

From 1347 to 1351(元朝), the Black Death, a massive and deadly pandemic originating in China, spread along the Silk Road and swept through Asia, Europe and Africa.It may have reduced the world's population from 450 million to between 350 and 375 million. China lost around half of its population, from around 123 million to around 65 million; Europe around 1/3 of its population, from about 75 million to about 50 million


字源(看看就好):1382, "affliction, calamity, evil, scourge," also "malignant disease," from M.Fr. plague,  from L.L. plaga,  used in Vulgate for "pestilence," from L. plaga  "stroke, wound," probably from root of plangere  "to strike, lament (by beating the breast),"









adj.簡單的, 明白的  [not complicated; clear]

  ex. The markings along the route are quite plain. 路線沿途的標誌都十分清楚

n.平原, 草原(樸實無華的東西) [an extensive area of level or rolling treeless country]


字源 from L. planus  "flat, even, level"

Sense of "evident" is from, c.1300; meaning "simple, sincere, ordinary" is recorded from late 14c.






n. [Geometry . a surface generated by a straight line moving at a constant velocity with respect to a fixed point.]


字源 from L. planus  "flat, even, level"






n. [major planet  any of the eight celestial bodies, Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune, that revolve around the sun in elliptical orbits and are illuminated by light from the sun]


What is a Planet? (from NASASolarSystem, enjoy it~)






plaintiff  (ˈpleɪntɪf)

n. from wiki:A plaintiff (Π in legal shorthand), also known as a claimant or complainant, is the term used in some jurisdictions for the party who initiates a lawsuit (also known as an action) before a court. By doing so, the plaintiff seeks a legal remedy, and if successful, the court will issue judgment in favor of the plaintiff and make the appropriate court order





plaintive   (ˈpleɪntɪv)

adj. [expressive of suffering]

  ex. They lay on the firm sands, listening to the plaintive cry of the seagulls.






adj. [resounding loudly, especially with a plaintive sound, as a bell.]



ps. 月落烏啼霜滿天





ps. review pang (p.342)







plait ( Britain)

n.=braid (US)(p.63)


plait 的 pl含有ply也就是fold的意思

另外,在發音上p~b, l~r


from wiki:

A braid (also called plait) is a complex structure or pattern formed by intertwining three or more strands of flexible material such as textile fibres, wire, or human hair.






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