phenomena (fɪˈnɒmɪnə)

phen(to appear)-omena

n. [a plural of phenomenon; an observable fact or event; any remarkable occurrence or person]


單數: phenomen on

複數: phenomen a

ps. 聯想: she no men on








adj. [extraordinary; outstanding; remarkable]

ex. a phenomenal achievement









philanthropic (ˌfɪlənˈθrɒpɪk)


adj. [characterized by philanthropy ; showing concern for humanity, esp by performing charitable actions, donating money, etc]

from wiki

In 1982, Paul Newman co-founded the Newman's Own food company and donated all after-tax profits to various charities. Upon his death in 2008, the company had donated over US$300 million to thousands of charities.


Largest individual bequests:

$31 billion from Warren Buffett to the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation (initial value of the gift)









philately (fɪˈlætəlɪ)

phil(loving)-ately( from Gk. ateleia ;exemption from tax )

n. [the collection and study of postage stamps and all related material concerned with postal history]


字源:ateleia  "exemption from tax," the closest word he could find in ancient Gk. to the concept of "postage stamp" (from a-  "without" + telos  "tax").


How to Collect Stamps









n. [a specialist in philately : one who collects or studies stamps]









philistine ( ˈfɪl ə ˌstaɪn)

adj. [( sometimes initial capital letter ) lacking in or hostile to culture.]

<> aesthete p.13


字源:"person deficient in liberal culture," 1827, originally in Carlyle, popularized by him and Matthew Arnold, from Ger. Philister "enemy of God's word, " lit. "Philistine," inhabitants of a Biblical land, neighbors (and enemies) of Israel


from wiki:

The Philistines, or Pleshet, were a people, apparently of Aegean or Cypriot origins, who occupied the southern coast of Canaan at the beginning of the Iron Age (c. 1175 BCE). According to the Bible, they ruled the five city-states (the "Philistine Pentapolis") of Gaza, Askelon, Ashdod, Ekron and Gath, from the Wadi Gaza in the south to the Yarqon River in the north, but with no fixed border to the east. The Bible paints them as Israel's most dangerous enemy prior to the unification of Israel . The total population of Philistia after the arrival of immigrants was around 25,000 in the 12th century (immediately after the migration), rising to a peak of 30,000 in the 11th century; the Aegean element was not more than half the total, and perhaps much less


ps. Canaan: the area covering roughly modern Palestine and southern Lebanon










adj. [having a stolid or unemotional disposition]


<> spirited


ps. phlegm is the one of the four humors in early physiology that was considered to be cold and moist and to cause sluggishness .

review p.57


from wiki:

Humorism, or humoralism, is a discredited theory of the makeup and workings of the human body adopted by Greek and Roman physicians and philosophers.

Essentially, this theory held that the human body was filled with four basic substances, called four humors, which are in balance when a person is healthy. All diseases and disabilities resulted from an excess or deficit of one of these four humors. These deficits could be caused by vapors that were inhaled or absorbed by the body. The four humors were black bile, yellow bile, phlegm, and blood. Greeks and Romans, and the later Muslim and Western European medical establishments that adopted and adapted classical medical philosophy, believed that each of these humors would wax and wane in the body, depending on diet and activity. When a patient was suffering from a surplus or imbalance of one fluid, then his or her personality and physical health would be affected. This theory was closely related to the theory of the four elements: earth, fire, water and air; earth predominantly present in the black bile, fire in the yellow bile, water in the phlegm, and all four elements present in the blood.











ps. Phoenix, Arizona, a United States city


From wiki:A phoenix is a mythical bird that is a fire spirit with a colorful plumage and a tail of gold and scarlet (or purple, blue, and green according to some legends). It has a 500 to 1000 year life-cycle, near the end of which it builds itself a nest of twigs that then ignites; both nest and bird burn fiercely and are reduced to ashes, from which a new, young phoenix or phoenix egg arises, reborn anew to live again. The new phoenix is destined to live as long as its old self. In some stories, the new phoenix embalms the ashes of its old self in an egg made of myrrh and deposits it in the Egyptian city of Heliopolis (literally "sun-city" in Greek). It is said that the bird's cry is that of a beautiful song. The Phoenix's ability to be reborn from its own ashes implies that it is immortal, though in some stories the new Phoenix is merely the offspring of the older one. In very few stories they are able to change into people.













n. [ the science concerned with the study of speech processes, including the production, perception, and analysis of speech sounds from both an acoustic and a physiological point of view. This science, though capable of being applied to language studies, technically excludes linguistic considerations]

ex. 研究發音器官(如唇、齒、舌、聲門等)如何彼此協調動作。



c.f. phonology: is concerned with abstract, grammatical characterization of systems of sounds.


Introduction to English Phonology












easy explanation:


very professional explanation:






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