osmosis [ɑzˋmosɪs]

n.滲透作用 [Diffusion of fluid through a semipermeable membrane from a solution with a low solute concentration to a solution with a higher solute concentration until there is an equal concentration of fluid on both sides of the membrane.]

ex. RO = Reverse osmosis

 

n.潛移默化 [A gradual, often unconscious process of assimilation or absorption]

ex. learning French by osmosis while residing in Paris for 15 years.

ex. Children seem to learn about computers by osmosis.

 

 

Diffusion (spontaneous)vs. Osmosis (passive)

Diffusion --Diffusion is the spontaneous net movement of particles from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration

 

Osmosis

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

ossify [ˋɑsəˏfaɪ]

oss( bone)-ify

v.骨化 [become hard like bone; change into bone]

ps. If an idea, system, or organization ossifies or if something ossifies it, it becomes fixed and difficult to change

ps. Ossification = bone tissue formation

古:ossification:flexibility 降低

 

ossify

 

 

 

 

 

 

osseous [ˋɑsɪəs]

oss-e-ous

adj. [Composed of, containing, or resembling bone; bony.]

ex. osseous tissue 骨組織

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

ostensible [ɑsˋtɛnsəb]

ob( in front of )-tens(=tend; stretch)-ible

adj. 表面的, 假裝的 [Ostensible is used to describe something that seems to be true or is officially stated to be true, but about which you or other people have doubts. ]

ex. The ostensible reason for his absence was illness, but everyone knew he'd gone to a football match.
他稱病缺席, 但誰都知道他去看足球賽了

ex. The government rushes to sign the China trade pact and claims the pact will bring huge benefits to Taiwan. However I think national security and freedom should not be sacrificed for ostensible commercial profits . ( apr. 2014)

字構:ostensible的概念是"往前拉"所意謂的是" to show, to display ",因此只有表面功夫,就像候選人的口水只是個show,政見只是ostensible。

 

reiview

tend  *tent     == stretch 拉長

tens

 

tent     n.帳篷

extend     v.延伸

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

ostentation [ˏɑstɛnˋteʃən]

ob( in front of )-tent(stretch)-ation

n.誇耀, 炫示 [= boastful showiness. ]

ps. If you describe someone's behaviour as ostentation, you are criticizing them for doing or buying things in order to impress people.

ex. Their daughter's wedding reception was sheer ostentation.
他們女兒大辦婚事純然是為了炫耀.

 

字構:ostentation 跟剛剛說到的"to show"的概念是一樣的。

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

ostracize [ˋɑstrəˏsaɪz]

v.放逐, 排斥 [to exclude, by general consent, from society, friendship, conversation, privileges,]

ex. He was ostracized by his colleagues for refusing to support the strike.
他因不支持罷工而受同事排斥

 

from Gk. ostrakon "tile, potsherd 陶片"

family word: ostracism

ostracism是一種在古雅典的放逐方式,為期十年。市民雅典會在 陶片 上寫上他們認為會危害到雅典城邦的人的名字(避免有產生專制者),然後收集陶片起來後,如果獲得足夠多的票數,那個人就會被逐出雅典城邦。

蘇格拉底(Socrates)的政治主張是反民主的。便到處散佈民主的弊端以警世人。他最常用的辦法是見人便問:如果你需要修鞋﹐應該到鞋匠那裡去對嗎﹖被問者當然回答說「對﹗」然後 他接問諸如﹐你要是想修桶﹐應當到箍桶匠那裡對嗎﹖你要是想修房﹐應當請泥瓦匠對嗎﹖你要是想釘馬掌﹐應當請鐵匠對嗎﹖當被質問者全都回答了「對」之後﹐蘇格拉底的最後一句反問是:如果管理國家﹐應該找誰﹖

因為反對雅典立國根本的民主制度,後來他就被審判了﹐其結果不僅是遭到陶片放逐﹐而是死刑的判決。最後處死蘇格拉底的罪名雖然因為他始終沒有直接說出反民主的政治主張﹐而是用其他罪名處死的。

 

Socrates

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

ostrich /ˋɔstrɪtʃ/

n. 鴕鳥

 

真正的字源:F ostrusce  (cf. F autruche ) < VL *avistrūthius,  for L avis bird + LL strūthiō  < LGk strouthíōn (類鳥的)

 

聯想法: os(ob; to)-stri(string;有拉緊、絃的意思)-ch :鴕鳥的脖子是細細長長的

音: o-s-the rich ...oh! 死有錢人 = 鴕鳥

 

Animation race btween penguin and ostrich

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

other-directed

adj.受人支配的 = be directed by other people (external )

 

相反的詞是,inner-directed = be directed by inner force.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

otter

n. 水獺

 

Otters holding hands

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


oust

ou(ob;against)-st(stand)

v.逐出 [to expel or remove from a place or position occupied]

ex. the American Revolution, which ousted the English

ex.  He was ousted from his position as chairman.
他的主席職位被罷免了.

古:oust <> instate

 

聯想: ou s t oust中有個out

oust 也是一款除臭劑的牌子

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

outgoing

adj. =going out

ex. an outgoing ship

ex. the outgoing president. 即將離任的總統。

adj.友好而好交際的 [friendly and sociable ]

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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