n.滲透作用 [Diffusion of fluid through a semipermeable membrane from a solution with a low solute concentration to a solution with a higher solute concentration until there is an equal concentration of fluid on both sides of the membrane.]
ex. RO = Reverse osmosis
n.潛移默化 [A gradual, often unconscious process of assimilation or absorption]
ex. learning French by osmosis while residing in Paris for 15 years.
ex. Children seem to learn about computers by osmosis.
Diffusion (spontaneous)vs. Osmosis (passive)
Diffusion --Diffusion is the spontaneous net movement of particles from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration
v.骨化 [become hard like bone; change into bone]
ps. If an idea, system, or organization ossifies or if something ossifies it, it becomes fixed and difficult to change
ps. Ossification = bone tissue formation
adj. [Composed of, containing, or resembling bone; bony.]
ex. osseous tissue 骨組織
ob( in front of )-tens(=tend; stretch)-ible
adj. 表面的, 假裝的 [Ostensible is used to describe something that seems to be true or is officially stated to be true, but about which you or other people have doubts. ]
ex. The ostensible reason for his absence was illness, but everyone knew he'd gone to a football match.
ex. The government rushes to sign the China trade pact and claims the pact will bring huge benefits to Taiwan. However I think national security and freedom should not be sacrificed for ostensible commercial profits . ( apr. 2014)
字構：ostensible的概念是"往前拉"所意謂的是" to show, to display "，因此只有表面功夫，就像候選人的口水只是個show，政見只是ostensible。
tend *tent == stretch 拉長
ob( in front of )-tent(stretch)-ation
n.誇耀, 炫示 [= boastful showiness. ]
ps. If you describe someone's behaviour as ostentation, you are criticizing them for doing or buying things in order to impress people.
ex. Their daughter's wedding reception was sheer ostentation.
字構：ostentation 跟剛剛說到的"to show"的概念是一樣的。
v.放逐, 排斥 [to exclude, by general consent, from society, friendship, conversation, privileges,]
ex. He was ostracized by his colleagues for refusing to support the strike.
from Gk. ostrakon "tile, potsherd 陶片"
family word: ostracism
ostracism是一種在古雅典的放逐方式，為期十年。市民雅典會在 陶片 上寫上他們認為會危害到雅典城邦的人的名字(避免有產生專制者)，然後收集陶片起來後，如果獲得足夠多的票數，那個人就會被逐出雅典城邦。
真正的字源：F ostrusce (cf. F autruche ) < VL *avistrūthius, for L avis bird + LL strūthiō < LGk strouthíōn (類鳥的)
聯想法： os(ob; to)-stri(string;有拉緊、絃的意思)-ch ：鴕鳥的脖子是細細長長的
音: o-s-the rich ...oh! 死有錢人 = 鴕鳥
Animation race btween penguin and ostrich
adj.受人支配的 = be directed by other people (external )
相反的詞是，inner-directed = be directed by inner force.
v.逐出 [to expel or remove from a place or position occupied]
ex. the American Revolution, which ousted the English
ex. He was ousted from his position as chairman.
古：oust <> instate
聯想: ou s t oust中有個out
adj. =going out
ex. an outgoing ship
ex. the outgoing president. 即將離任的總統。
adj.友好而好交際的 [friendly and sociable ]