optimism

optim( from L. optimus ;best )-ism

n.樂觀主義 [A tendency to expect the best possible outcome or dwell on the most hopeful aspects of a situation]

ex. He was still full of optimism for the future despite his many problems.
他儘管有許多問題, 但對未來仍十分樂觀.

 

字源:

optimism這個字是Leibnitz(數學家兼哲學家)所coin出來的,這個主義的(當時的)概念是the actual world is the "best of all possible worlds",白話一點來說,我們處在的是world是所有可能的world最好的,創造者具有最大的善,最小的惡。

Leibnitz是用L. optimus = best而coin出來的

c.f.

相對的pessimism n. [A tendency to stress the negative or unfavorable or to take the gloomiest possible view]

就是說,我們的world是最糟的。之後我們在更詳細來討論這個字吧

 

ps. optim-ize v.使完美, 優化

..你在一些號稱可優化的軟體中都可以看到這個字

 

 

 

 

 

optimist

optim( from L. optimus ;best )-ist

n. [One who usually expects a favorable outcome.]

 

 

 

 

optimum (也可以寫成optimal)

optim( from L. optimus ;best )-um

adj. 最適宜的

ex. the optimum temperature for the growth of plants

 

 

 

 

 

 

optional

opt(to choose))-ion-al

adj.可選擇的, 隨意的 [left to one's choice; not required or mandatory]

ex. Formal dress is optional.

ex. A holiday isn't an optional extra. In this stressful, frantic world it's a must.

ps. optional tour = 自費旅程

 

字源:from L. optionem (nom. optio ) "choice, free choice,from PIE base *op - "to choose, prefer."

 

family word

option

n. 選擇權 [power or freedom of choosing]

n. 選項

 

 

 

 

 

 

opulent

adj.豐裕的, 豐饒的 [having or showing signs of great wealth]

ps. Opulent things or places look grand and expensive.

ex. an opulent suburb
富裕的市郊

 



ps. 歐沛樂( opulent)它是個 機能性蔬食狗食...素的狗食

 

 

 

 

 

 

oracle

ora( 與pray有關 )-cle

n.神諭處 [ (in ancient Greece) holy place where the gods could be asked about the future]

ps. the oracle at Delphi 在德爾斐的神示所

n.神諭 [The response given through such a medium, often in the form of an enigmatic statement or allegory(which was often ambiguous or obscure)]

n.傳達神諭的祭司(也可以比喻成能提供可靠意見的人)

ex. My sister's the oracle on beauty matters

 

字源:late 14c., "a message from a god, expressed by divine inspiration," from O.Fr. oracle (12c.), from L. oraculum "divine announcement, oracle," from orare "pray, plead"

 

or- 這個輔音有代表與嘴巴mouth有關係的意思

or- =mouth ex. oral      a.口頭的
or- =pray ex. oracle   n.神諭
or- =speak ex. oration  n.演說

ps. oracle也是一家很大的軟體公司的名字

 

 

 

 

 

 

oration

n.演說, 致辭 [A formal speech, especially one given on a ceremonial occasion.]

ps. 比方說228週年紀念日的致辭就是個oration

ex. a brief funeral oration.

 

 

 

 

 

 

oratory

n. [(M-W)the art of speaking in public eloquently (review p.170) or effectively]

ps. Oratory is the art of making formal speeches which strongly affect people's feelings and beliefs.

oratory既也是一種art,也有跟skilful use of  expressive language有關。

oratory比較像是 elocution (art or style) eloquence (expressive language) 的綜合體


ex. Some politicians are famous for their powers of oratory.
有些政治家以辯才著稱.

n.私人禮拜堂 [small chapel for private prayer or worship ]

ps. oratorio(下一個字)就是由oratory的這個字義所創造出來的

 

 

 

 

 

 

oratorio /ˏɔrəˋtɔrɪo/

n. 神劇 (通常以《聖經》內容為主題)[musical composition for solo voices, chorus and orchestra,usu with a Biblical theme]

ps. oratorio是一種以宗教為主題的音樂,它同時也帶有戲劇性。在早期的神劇中,會有位說書人的角色,比方說歷史家,然後敘述到某個角色的時候,那個角色就會站出來唱自己的部份,而歌者不穿戲服、也沒有舞台動作。

oratorio 一般是由序曲、獨唱曲、重唱曲、合唱曲所組成的,且經常搭配管絃樂團一起演出。

 

 

韓德爾的神劇「 彌賽亞 」 ...其中有大家很熟悉的 哈利路亞

Messiah - Handel ( 1 )


Messiah - Handel ( 2 )


Messiah - Handel ( 3 )

 

 

 

 

 

 

orchard

n.果園 [An area of land devoted to the cultivation of fruit or nut trees.]

ex. Her orchard has become a demonstrative base of scientific research in the country.

 

字源(參考就好):orc(= w ort ; vegetable)-hard( PIE ghor ; enclosure , yard)

 

 

 

 

 

orchestra /ˋɔrkɪstrə/

n.交響樂隊 [A large group of musicians who play together on various instruments, usually including strings, woodwinds, brass instruments, and percussion instruments.]

ps.orchestra裡面有絃樂、木管、銅管、打擊樂器

 

字源:orchestra原來是指在希臘時代半圓型的戲劇舞台,前面的orches(from GK. orkheisthai to dance), -tra (place), Meaning "group of musicians performing at a concert, opera, etc." first recorded 1720。

 

為你選撥的是Benjamin/布列頓的作品,特別寫給青年供給認識orchestra的編制

The Young Person's Guide to the Orchestra, Part1


The Young Person's Guide to the Orchestra, Part2

 

 

 

 

 

 

ordain

ordo(=order)-ain

v.任命 [make somebody a priest or minister; confer holy orders on.]

ex. He was ordained a Catholic priest in 1982.

v.頒佈命令 [=enact, to establish or order by appointment, decree, or law]

ex. Fate had ordained that he should die in poverty.
命中注定他得死於貧困.

 

更正:這邊的 minister不是指首相 囧rz..

在天主教的制度中, Pope (教宗)--> Cardinal (樞機主教,全球178人)--> Archbishop (大主教,大城市or主要教區的主教)--> Bishop (主教=a minister of church government)--> Priest (牧師/神父;在基督教中的些分派也稱 minister )--> Deacon (執事;學習當牧師的人)

 

 

The rite of ordination

 

 

 

 

 

ordeal

n.嚴酷的考驗 [=trial, A difficult or painful experience, especially one that severely tests character or endurance]

ps. trial by ordeal 就是讓人經歷個嚴酷的考驗來決定他是否是有罪還是清白的,通常這個考驗是滿危險,可能會致死,如果考驗者的傷口復原的,那表示他是清白的(相反地,沒復原那就死了)。但也有些情況下,只有死掉才表示情白的。

n.痛苦的經驗

ex. He came successfully through the ordeal.
他成功地經受了考驗。

 

音:惡地阿

English Pronunciation - ORDEAL

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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