forfeit    /ˈfɔr‧fɪt/

for(wrongly)-feit(from L. facere; to make)

n.喪失的東西;沒收物;罰金

  ex. His health was the forfeit he paid for overworking.
  他因工作過度而喪失了健康。

 

v.因犯罪失職違約等,喪失權利名譽,生命

  ex. Passengers who cancel their reservations will forfeit their deposit.
  旅客取消預訂票者, 定金不予退還

  ex. to forfeit the right to inherit  (2017 add)

 

 

ps.1

for- 除了可以有"為了"之意外,還有"outside","wrongly"的意思

 

ps.2

forfeit的字源:1250–1300; ME forfet < OF (ptp. of forfaire to commit crime, to lose possession or right through a criminal act) < ML forīs factum penalty, ptp. of forīs facere to transgress, equiv. to L forīs outside, wrongly + facere to make, do

forfeit是由古法文而來的,其意思為"犯罪 to commit crime"或是"因為犯罪而喪失權利、財產",字是拉丁文的 forīs(wrongly)-facere(to make)而來

 

ps.3

forfeiture [forfeit-ure] n.沒收

 

 

 

 

 

forge

v.鍛造 [to form by heating and hammering; beat into shape.]

  ex. to forge a sword.

  ex. Everything new comes from the forge(當名詞用) of hard and bitter struggle

v.偽造 [ to imitate (handwriting, a signature, etc.) fraudulently]

   ex. forge an official document
  偽造官方文件

n. 鐵匠鋪 [ the workshop of a blacksmith; smithy.]

 

pirate:take=forge:copy
盜版是非法拿=偽造是非法複製

 

 

 

forger

forge-er

n.鐵匠 [someone who operates a forge ]

n.偽造者 [someone who makes copies illegally ]

 

 

forgery

forger-y

n.偽造物

n.偽造罪 [the crime of falsely making or altering a writing by which the legal rights or obligations of another person are apparently affected]

 

 

 

 

forgo

for-go  [讓她走]

v.放棄 [to give up, renounce, or resign.]

  使用這個forgo的時候,同常指放棄某種好的東西,(不是自暴自棄的放棄)

  ex. I'll have to forgo my vacation in order to attend a summer Chinese course.
  為了參加暑期中文班我只好放棄暑假。

  ex. The workers agreed to forgo a pay increase for the sake of greater job security.
  工人們為了工作更保險, 同意放棄增加工資的要求.

 

 

 

 

forsake

forsake forsook forsaken [為了某種原因而拋棄]

v.拋棄 [ to quit or leave entirely; abandon; desert]

  ex. He forsakes medicine to study literature.
  他放棄醫學去研究文學。

 

forsake字源:O.E. forsacan "decline, refuse," from for- "completely" + sacan "to deny, refuse"

 

ps.

sake

n.原因

for the sake of somebody

for the sake of God

 

 

 

 

formality

form-al-ity

n.拘謹(簡單說就是大家很正式) [The quality or condition of being formal.]

  ex. I wish we could treat each other without formality.
  我真希望我們彼此之間不要太拘謹。

n.禮節(例如喪禮) [Rigorous or ceremonious adherence to established forms, rules]

  ex. The level of formality determines the precise mode of expression.
  不同的禮節程度決定所需的確切表達方式.

n.正式手續

 

duel:formality
duel決鬥的特點是正式

 

 

 

 

formation

form-ation

n.構成,組成 [The act or process of forming something]

  ex. Education has for its object the formation of character.
  教育的目的在於品德的形成

n.陣式 [A specified arrangement or deployment, as of troops.]

 

array:numbers=formation:soldiers
數字排列形成矩陣=士兵排列形成列隊

 

 

 

formula

n.應酬話等的慣用語句

n.【數】方程式、公式

n.【化】分子式

  ex. CO is the formula for carbon monoxide.

 

ex. F1 : Formula One Grand Prix

 

 

 

 

formidable

formid(fear)-able

adj.令人畏懼的 [Arousing fear, dread, or alarm]

  ex. the formidable prospect of major surgery.

adj.難對付的 [Difficult to undertake, surmount, or defeat]

  ex. a formidable challenge

  ex. a formidable opponent.

  ex. a formidable mathematical question

 

 

 

 

forthright

forth(adv. 向前)-right

adj.直率的 [ going straight to the point; frank; direct; outspoken]

  ex. It's sometimes difficult to be forthright and not give offense.

 

 

 

 

forte

fort(strong from F.)-e

n.特長、長處 [ a strong point, as of a person; that in which one excels]

n. fencing中的劍較strong部分 [The strong part of a sword blade, between the middle and the hilt.]

n.[音樂] 強音記號

 

ps.發音

In the sense of a person's strong point (He draws well, but sculpture is his forte), the older and historical pronunciation of forte is the one-syllable(音節) /fɔrt/

A two-syllable pronunciation /ˈfɔrteɪ/ is increasingly heard, especially from younger educated speakers, perhaps owing to confusion with the musical term forte, pronounced in English as /ˈfɔrteɪ/and in Italian as    /ˈfɔrtɛ/. Both the one- and two-syllable pronunciations of forte are now considered standard.

 

 

 

 

fortify

fort(strong)-ify

v.增強,加強 [to make strong; impart strength or vigor to]

  ex. A good breakfast will fortify you for the day's work.
 早餐吃得好會提高你一天的工作效率

  ex. Good eating habits help to fortify the body against disease.
  好的飲食習慣有助於強身防病。

v.築堡壘於 [to protect or strengthen against attack; To strengthen and secure (a position) with fortifications. ]

  ex. They decided to fortify the coastal areas.
  他們決定加強海岸地區的防衛。

 

ps.

fort

n.堡壘,要塞

 

 

 

 

 

fortitude

fort-itude

n.堅忍;剛毅 [ Strength of mind that allows one to endure pain or adversity with courage.]

  ex. For a moment father's fortitude was shaken.

  ex. 南宋 文天祥

 

 

 

 

    

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