a(=ad;to)-bandon(power) [to give to a public ban]
v.拋棄 [to leave completely and finally,to give up]
ex. He abandons his idea.
字源：1375, "to subjugate, subdue," from O.Fr. abandoner "surrender," from à "at, to" + bandon "power, jurisdiction," in phrase mettre à bandon "to give up to a public ban,"
ex. He was abashed when he was on the stage.
note: 中間有 ash "灰的"→灰頭土臉
考古：embolden <> abash
v.減少,減弱,減輕 [to reduce in amount, degree, intensity]
ex.Nothing could abate his rage.
字源： c.1270, from O.Fr. abattre "beat down," from L. ad "to" + battuere "to beat" (see batter (v.))
abate：tax = alleviate：distress 減輕‧稅=減輕‧壓力（動作與其相關物件）
v.縮寫,使省略 [to shorten (a word or phrase) by omitting letters, substituting shorter forms, etc.]
ex.UFO is abbreviated from unidentified flying object.
v.縮短 [to reduce (anything) in length, duration, etc]
ex. King abdicated the throne in 1936.
note: 字源：from ab- "away" + dicare "proclaim," from stem of dicere "to speak, to say"
考古：abdicate <> usurp v. 篡位
字源：from Latin ab- + errare 'to wander'
考古：aberrant <> normal 正常的