n.候補演員; 替手 [a performer who learns the role of another in order to serve as a replacement if necessary.]
note: 比方說，在舞台表演的主角生病了，突然不能上台，或是聲音沒了，那該怎麼辦？ 這時候就有backup的演員來暫替。這個角色就是understudy。 通常使用戲場的管理者會先告知觀眾，今天的主角有事故，所以用understudy來表演。
v. [Sign and accept liability under (an insurance policy), thus guaranteeing payment in case loss or damage occurs.]
note: 保險公司會支付你賠償，如果你生病或者是車子被撞。這時你就可以說： My insurance company underwrites (= to sign ) the insurance policy that pays my damage.
note: 像政府機關也可以金錢上支付美術館的費用，這也可以用underwrite. ex. Government underwrites the museum.
adj. [ not merited, or earned]
ex. the penalty is undeserved and unjust.
ex. Praise undeserved, is satire in disguise. (Alexander Pope)
adj. [not wanted or welcomed; disliked]
ex. People like delicious food, but the excessive fat from it is undesirable.
ex. The inconvenient and lengthy administrative process is undesirable.
undirected /ˌʌn dɪˈrɛk tɪd/
adj. [Lacking direction; without a particular aim, purpose, or target]
ex. This undirected meeting cannot help us make a decision.
ex. Too many people provide ideas, but no one really knows which way is the correct one. It is a mess and undirected.
v. [to find something by digging in the ground ]
note: similar word -- excavate (p.187)
ex. Scientists unearthed the oldest dinosaur embryo fossils. ( see here )
adj. [Unnatural or mysterious, especially in a disturbing way]
note: not from the world ( earth) --> mysterious
note: Unearthly is a series of young adult urban fantasy novels by American author Cynthia Hand. The story follows a teenager named Clara, who learns that she is part angel and has a purpose to fulfill on Earth.
adj. [not showing understanding or knowledge]
ex. At that time, I was nearly unenlightened about handling the relationship.
note: enlighten v.啟蒙 (p.176)
adj.無可挑剔的 [that cannot be criticized; entirely satisfactory]
note: every thing is so good, and no one can find exceptions.
ex. The speech is unexceptionable in every aspect; he has prepared this talk for a whole month.
note: unexceptional ( un-exception-al ) adj.[outstanding or unusual]
note: exception n. 除外
adj. [ not failing; not giving way]
note: not like to fail ( decrease )
ex. Parents' love and support is unfailing.
ex. We all love her unfailing optimism -- and she says the secret is just to forgive and forget.
un-fast-en note: t 沒有發音， 最後是像 "son"
v. [to make (something) loose]
note: you will hear several times " to fasten your seat belt" during a flight.
ex. to unfasten shoelaces.
adj. [ not false or pretended; sincere ]
ex. Her unfeigned descriptions of the children in the war zone touched many of us.
un-flap(state of excitement)-able
adj.臨危不亂的 [not easily upset : unusually calm in difficult situations]
note: flap v. 鳥拍翅膀的動作 ( 有激動的意思 )
ex. Wang may be the most unflappable Taiwanese pitcher.