v. [to press something down by tapping it several times so that it becomes flatter and more solid.]
ex. tamp down the tobacco in a pipe.
ex. tamp the coffee grinds in the container to make espresso.
ex.Social media, like Twitter and Facebook, has the effect of tamping down diversity of opinion and stifling debate about public affairs. It makes people less likely to voice opinions, particularly when they think their views differ from those of their friends, according to a report published Tuesday by researchers at Pew Research Center and Rutgers University.
(New York Times Aug 26, 2014)
v.擅自改動某事物 [meddle or interfere with sth; alter sth without authority]
note: tamper字源上可能與temper有關，temper一般人熟悉的意思是『脾氣』，但他當動詞的時候是比較早期的意思，有指modify, to make (steel) hard and elastic (使金屬回火)
ex. I don't want to be accused of tampering with the evidence.
ex. tamper proof ...指的是防動封條
ex. temper justice with mercy, ie be merciful when punishing sb justly 法外施恩（懲罰某人時公正而仁慈）.
temper v.[bring (metal) to the required degree of hardness and elasticity by heating and then cooling]
v. [convert (animal skin) into leather by treating it with tannic acid, etc]
note: tanning可以指當動物的皮毛，變成皮革(leather)的過程。 leather 較原始的皮毛耐磨，且不易分解。 比方說，皮帶的材質常常用leather.
v.曬成褐色 [(cause sth to) become brown by exposure to the sun]
ex. 日光浴叫做Sun tanning or tanning. 皮膚變黑是由於接觸到UV radiation. 適度的曬太陽可以增加人體 Vitamin D的產生。
( the process takes 12 months.)
adj. [ having only a slight or indirect connection with the thing you are concerned with, and is therefore not worth considering seriously. ]
ex. Our time is very limited, so we should recognize which things are important and which are tangential to the current situation(ex. web browsing, FB...). Get the things done as soon as possible meanwhile saving time from not doing tangential stuff.
v.使纏結 [to bring together into a mass of confusedly interlaced or intertwisted threads, strands, or other like parts ]
ex. The wires tangle up.
ex. The feelings of love and hatred toward her father tangled at the moment when her parents divorced.
note: entangle (v.), disentangle (v.)
n. [a tangled condition or situation.]
ex. After losing the current job, her life is a tangle. In order to raise three children, she is taking 3 part-time jobs.
n. [a South American dance in which two people hold each other closely, walk quickly in one direction, then walk quickly back again.]
A. Piazzolla. Libertango
wiki: Ástor Pantaleón Piazzolla was an Argentine tango composer, bandoneon player and arranger. His oeuvre revolutionized the traditional tango into a new style termed nuevo tango, incorporating elements from jazz and classical music.
adj. [A tangy flavour or smell is one that is sharp, especially a flavour like that of lemon juice or a smell like that of sea air. ]
ex. tangy pickle
<> bland, dull
Tangy Baked Chicken Wings Recipe
ex. 空氣中佈滿辣椒的味道...the pungent aroma of roasting green chiles.
v. [ tease or torment by the sight of sth that is desired but cannot be reached]
ex. Give the dog the bone don't tantalize him.
ex. A mirage tantalizes travelers in deserts, misleading them and then destroying their hopes.
note: tantalize 來自希臘神話中 Tantalus 的個故事。 Tantalus 是 Zeus 的兒子，但他非常的壞，會偷東西與偷講諸神的秘密。他把他兒子Pelops,當祭品，煮來宴請諸神。( 後來Pelops 被覆活了，反而變成個很帥的青年)。由於這件事 Zeus 很生氣，就被處罰"慾望永不能滿足"的處罰，他得站在池水中，當他想喝水的時候，水位就下降，當他想去摘頭上的水果時，水果就會升高。頭上還有一個很大的巨石，可能隨時會掉下來，所以他也處於一種不安的情況。
adj. [If you say that one thing is tantamount to a second, more serious thing, you are emphasizing how bad, unacceptable, or unfortunate the first thing is by comparing it to the second.]
note: tantamount 是個很有趣的字，在字義上是指 "being equal to", 但是他是用一種誇示的方法，來把第一件事情，等同於， 程度更加的第二件事情。
ex. In her mind, being bitten by a mosquito is tantamount to getting a terrible disease.
ex. To many girls, having a boyfriend is tantamount to finishing a life goal.
ex. If he resigned it would be tantamount to admitting that he was guilty.
n.發脾氣 [If a child has a tantrum, they lose their temper in a noisy and uncontrolled way. If you say that an adult is throwing a tantrum, you are criticizing them for losing their temper and acting in a childish way. ]
ex. My five-year-old son has a tantrum just because his toy disappears.
similar word: temper