stylus    /ˋstaɪləs/

n. [instrument used by the ancients in writing on clay or waxed tablets; a pen-shaped pointing device used for entering data]

   note: 這個字是在遠早人類用來在泥板上刻字的器具,當然現在已經很少看到了,因為我們大多是用鉛筆、原子筆。不過隨著iPad等tablet流行,很多開發商,像是知名的Wacom,有做出給iPad, iPhone用的繪圖筆(因為那是跟觸壓有關,所以長的跟一般的繪圖筆不一樣),一般來說他們會稱他 istylus, or stylus for iPad. Stylus另外個會在今日使用的場所,是指讀取唱片等儀器的尖針部位。

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

stymie    /ˋstaɪmɪ/

v.阻礙 [to present an obstacle to]

  note: Stymie 大約是發展於1830's左右,這字原本所指是蘇格蘭高爾夫球的術語,意思是你要打進洞的球,其路徑上不避免的會遇到對手的球。後來stymie就演化成有阻礙的意思了,因為就像在你有前進的路上,有著別人的阻礙一樣。 常見的同義詞(動詞型)有: impede, hinder, hamper, obstruct

  ex. News such as Apple and Samsung usually sue each other for infringing their own patents. Some people are afraid that the Giant Tech companies will stymie the pace of innovation.

  ex. Cold winter outside stymies me to leave my cozy bed.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

subdue    /səbˋdju/

sub(below)-due(~duct, to lead)

v.制伏 [to conquer and bring into subjection]

   note: 我們開始談sub-的字首所組合而成的字了,sub大多數都是做below來解釋,due這邊是來自於duct, duce字根,意思是引導,eduction就是最明顯的一個字。所以subdue有擊敗別人的意思,也就是to defeat,同時有控制的意思。 關於打敗,我們等等會講 subjugate, defeat, conquer 的不同。

   ex. No threat can subdue one's hatred. Only love can transform it to another love.

   ex. By hypnosis, he subdues his worst fears of attending a big exam. He tells and educates himself that taking an exam is a doable thing to him, and it is normal to encounter the questions he doesn't know how to solve.

 

 

 

 

 

subdued    /səb'djuːd/

sub-due-ed

adj.減弱的

  note: subdued, 這是個滿實用且值得學來使用的字,字義上連結動詞subdue 擊敗、制服,加了個ed後就有被擊敗的意思了,轉而指什麼什麼程度降低的意思,同常用來形容聲音的大小,與顏色。

   ex. The snow covers all the places, making landscape and the sky all subdued grey.

   ex. The subdued color theme in the painting of an old man links me to a melancholic memory.

   ex. After one person points out a question to him, his voice becomes much subdued, seeming he forgets what he should talk about next.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

subjugate    /ˋsʌbdʒəˏɡet/

sub-jug(L. jugum; yoke)-ate

v.征服 使服從 [to bring under control and governance as a subject]

  note: sub是下面的意思,而jug是從牛軛所發過來的,牛軛就是用來套住牛頭,讓牛來拉車或耕田的器具。所以subjugate這個字,不僅當作征服,而且還有代表嚴格控制的意思。

  note: defeat是單純講打贏敵人,而conquer是代表著經過一連串的戰役,而最後戰勝敵人的意思,是有多層戰役在裡面。

  ex. The once regal Inca empire was completely destroyed by the Spanish's attempt to subjugate South America.

  ex. His life and fate has been subjugated by his father's will. He becomes a perfect son that his father wants, a doctor with ample salary, but he never feels happy in his family.

 

 

 

 

 

 

subject    /ˈsʌbdʒɛkt/   /sʌb'dʒɛɪkt/

sub(below)-ject(to throw)

  note: 這個字有許多的用法唷。跟許多的單字一樣,當名詞時發音的重音是在第一音節讀成/ˈsʌbdʒɛkt/ ,動詞把重音放在第二音節讀成 /sʌb'dʒɛɪkt/。

在字源上sub當下,ject 當丟,例如eject, reject。最早的概念類似放在地下的。 當時被當作指國王底下支配的民眾來使用。現在還保留這個用法,我們到有君主統治的國家說那國的國民是用suject, 例如English subject, 對比是citizen, 那是沒有君主統治的國家的國民的說法,例如 Taiwanese citizen. 在而後,有subject matter,就類似人所能支配的東西一樣,發展出了『主題、學科』等用法。

 n. 主題, 學科、內容

  ex. The subject of our conversation includes many psychological topics, for example, the child mind development and the child intellect growth.

  ex. Physics is my favorite subject in high school.

 

n. 受試者, 被作用的對象,在文法中的主語

  ex. The male subjects in this psychology experiment have better testing points than female ones.

  ex. Ron arrest becomes a subject for ridicule by all sorts of NBA fans since he changed his name to "Metta World Peace."

  ex.  S+V+O = subject + verb + object ( grammar)

 

n. 國民 [any member of a State apart from the supreme ruler]

  ex. I am French by birth and a British subject by marriage.

 
 
v.征服; 制伏 /sʌb'dʒɛɪkt/
  ex. Ancient Rome subjected most of Europe.
 
adj.受人支配的  /sʌb'dʒɛɪkt/
  ex. The imagination and empathy is not subject to gender difference, and the best selling novel that discussing woman issues is actually from a male author.

 

 

 

 

 

 

subjective    /səbˋdʒɛktɪv/

adj.主觀的 [based on personal taste, views. existing in the mind and not produced by things outside the mind ]

  note: 你可以想成subject  其中有個字義是文法中的主詞,所以是關於動作者本身的,所以subjective 指的是主觀,每個人都會有不一樣的感受。像是歐洲人覺得足球很好看,而棒球很無聊,但台灣人覺得棒球是國球,而不知道什麼是Hockey -- 加拿大的國球。 這就是主觀性。

  ex. Whether it is good music or not is a subjective question. Some people like rock music, but others may like classical music. Yet, there are some objective elements for good music, that is, it can arouse listeners' emotion.

 ex. Art is subjective, and only its subjectivity can connect us to the creator's soul and broaden our imagination.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

sublime    /səˋblaɪm/

sub(up to)-lime(一種石頭,這邊當作門檻, threshold)

adj.崇高的 [of the greatest, most admirable kind; causing awe and reverence]

  note: 字根上,sub 一般當作below,而這邊是指在地下往上的意思,所以反而是當up來解釋,這類型的解釋是比較少見的。而後面的lime是源自一種石頭,當時作為門檻。所以在古代的概念sublime是指在於門檻之上,而目前指崇高的意思,簡單來說就是非常棒的意思。 常見的使用場合,會用sublime來形容自然景物,或是音樂。類似的字,還有transcendent adj.

  ex. In the concert is floating one of the most sublime music creation from Chopin, the Piano Concerto No. 1, written in 1830 and first performed in Warsaw during one of Chopin's farewell concerts before leaving Poland. (下面有youtube的link, 真的很好聽唷)

 

v. 昇華 (指由固體變化成氣體,而沒有經過液體的過程)

  note: 這是比較在凝態物理或是化學上會看到的詞彙,一般加熱會從固體-->液體-->氣體,但是在壓力夠低的情況下,可以直接由固體-->氣體

 

Chopin - Piano concerto No. 1 - Romance (Larghetto)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

subliminal    /sʌbˋlɪmənl/

sub(below)-limin(一種石頭,這邊當hreshold)-al

adj.下意識的 [existing or functioning below the threshold of consciousness]

   note1: 字源上subliminal出現的時間較晚,約1886年,sub的解釋已經變成了below,有別於在sublime之中的sub是當up to。

   note2: subliminal比較難用字典上的解釋來理解,所以先給大家一個例子,比方說在電視上有些置入性行銷,你可能在觀劇情的時候沒有留意到為什麼這時主角不喝水而是喝杯可樂,然後大家不知不覺的,就覺得想去買可樂來喝。這種你沒有sense到,但是又能激發你的就叫做 subliminal stimuli. 較有名的例子有,播放一串很快,眼睛根本無法讀取的字,在廣告中,像是pop corn,然後大家可能就會有去買爆米花的想法。

  ex. This comics has several subliminal messages in it, that is, in some scenes there are characters from previous story lines in the far backgrounds.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

submission    /səbˋmɪʃən/

sub(below)-miss(send)-ion

n.降服 [acceptance of another`s power; submitting]

    note: 不知道有沒有養過狗狗的經驗,有時候兩隻狗狗相遇的時候,其中一隻比較弱小的,會躺在地上把肚子翻上,尾巴縮起來,目的是投降避免打架而表現出來的順從,我們稱這種動作就是submission, 然後可以用submissive dog來指的這隻狗。

  ex. I am so hungry and cannot wait anymore, so even I hope to have healthy diet but I am into submission to junk food now.

  ex. Sometimes it is hard to believe women quite like reading novels with graphic scenes and sexual submission topics.

n.提交的東西

  note: 這是指"按照規定"成交東西的意思,原本有服從的概念在。

  ex. Every researcher hopes his submission to top journals will be accepted, because it will affect his credibility and fame a lot.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

submit    /səbˋmɪt/

sub(below)-mit(send)

v.降服 [ to accept the control, superior strength, etc; yield ]

  ex. Some NBA players submit to injuries or drug abuse, ending their career very early.

  ex. I would like submit to her beauty, her smiles, and her wisdom. I could do everything for her.

v.提交

  ex. Usually a graduate school application requires you to submit a statement of purpose and 3 letters of recommendations.

 

 

 

 

xination 發表在 痞客邦 PIXNET 留言(0) 人氣()