n. [thin sheet of metal, cardboard, etc with a design or letters cut out of it, used for putting this design, etc onto a surface when ink or paint is applied to it]
note: When talking about the graffiti street art done by stencils, the very first one comes to my mind is Banksy. Banksy's artwork frequently involves satire and dark humor, and very very popular.
ex. The education should not be a stencil to manufacture smart students in certain popular fields. We need variety and diversity to face the unknown and rapidly changing future.
Youtube: How To: Cut a Stencil EASILY
adj.洪亮的, 響亮的 [ being loud and powerful of a voice]
ex. a stentorian voice.
ex. A stentorian voice for reforming Military Justice all over Taiwan. .
etymology: 希臘神話中，Stentor 是個聲音很大的人，他的吼叫聲可以抵的上50人一起喊叫的音量，在the Trojan War中，擔任傳令。
related word: booming, clamorous, obstreperous
stereo( Gk.= solid)-type
n.刻板印象 [A stereotype is a fixed general image or set of characteristics that a lot of people believe represent a particular type of person or thing. ]
ex. Although we live in a modern society, some people still have a stereotype about women should sacrifice job opportunities and take their families as the first priority.
ex. Don't put an Asian stereotype on me. Actually, I am not a shy person and I like asking questions and discussing problems in classes.
ex. "Women are bad drivers" is a quite offensive stereotype to my mom, because she is a moto racer.
etymology: stereo，這個字根來自Greek, 意思是solid堅硬的。而它在現在的用法有作為"3-dimensional"的東西的說法。比方說，stereo 就是指立體音響。
sterile / ˋstɛrəl/
adj.不能生殖的 [(of plants, animals or humans) not producing or not able to produce seeds, young or children]
ex. Liger is a hybrid between lion and tiger. The hybrid big cat was long thought to be sterile, but in 1943 people observed a successful example.
ex. Although we've discussed the cost issue with the public relations department, but the sterile discussions just keep people in the meeting room, and there is no obvious progress.
note: fertile adj.多產的 (page 200)
adj.無菌的 [free from germs, bacteria, etc]
ex. Former South African president Nelson Mandela ( won Nobel Peace Prize ) remains very sensitive to any germs, so he has to be kept literally sterile.
ex. An operating room should be completely sterile.
etymology: 源於拉丁文中的 L. sterilis，最早被引進英文的時指的是土地光禿禿，沒有辦法種植的意思。後來，從1535年開始就有指女性不能生育的意思。而到比較近代的1828年，才有無菌的意思。
v.殺菌 [make free from bacteria]
ex. My wife carefully sterilizes the baby milk bottle with hot water in order to keep our baby healthy.
ex. Antiseptic is used to sterilize the skin before giving an injection.
v. [make infertile]
n.嚴厲的 [ firm, strict, or uncompromising ]
ex. Our Many-body physics course instructor has a stern regulation on his students. He requires students to come in the classroom 5 minutes earlier each class, and he never posts solutions to the homework. If you want to know the answer you have to discuss with him in person. And the final taking home exam will consume you around 100 pieces of paper. (true story..)
ex. Don't give a stern look to your kid, she doesn't know she makes a mistake.
note: David Stern. 前NBA總裁
note: stern 從另外個字源的發展而來，而有當"船尾"的意思。 from stem to stern 是指船頭到船尾，整艘船的意思。
stetho (from Gk. stethos = chest) - scope
n.聽診器 [a medical instrument for listening to the sounds generated inside the body]
ex. Besides using their hands to feel the pulse, traditional Chinese physicians sometimes also use stethoscope.
n.堅持己見的人 [someone who insists on something; one who insists on exactness or completeness in the observance of something ]
ex. Steve Jobs seems a stickler to perfection, if he knew the Apple's map product is so awful, he would have fired all the related personnel.
ex. Since she works for a fashion magazine, she becomes a stickler to stylish apparel.
note: sticker n.貼紙
adj.僵直的 [not easily bent, folded, moved, changed in shape]
ex. After walking all the day for Black Friday shopping, my legs become stiff and sore. I should go home and take a hot bath to release the pain.
* 門不好開： The door is stiff and it is hard to open it.
* 不友善的： The new boss watches my report with a stiff smile.
* 艱難的： In the stiff competition, Winamp ends its development.
題外： We say an ODE equation is stiff in numerical method, it means hard and necessary to take much smaller steps to get good result.
v.使窒息 [ to make sb. unable to breathe because of lack of fresh air]
synonym: smother, suffocate (p.435)
note. 相較之下，stifle 的原始字義 "使人窒息"倒是沒這麼常用，比較多的情況是指政策壓抑某些創新等等，這引伸字義比較像suppress。
ex. The new school policy requires students to take extra classes in summer vacation. I consider that will stifle the creativity of our children.
ex. The local people are against a big chain store coming into their neighborhood, because they are worry it will stifle the unique and small local retail stores.
n.恥辱的標記 [mark of shame or disgrace]
ex. Sexual assault victims sometimes feel themselves carrying a stigma, making them away from receiving help.
ex. Some men will attach a stigma to themselves while being refused after confessing their love to the girls they like.
ex. In the past, an unmarried mother would be attached a stigma by the other family members.
etymology: 在希臘的字中，stigma是指 "mark, puncture,"而轉由拉丁文進入英文後變成烙印在皮膚上的標記，那些標記代表著不光彩。
ex. Gays should not be stigmatized as a source of spreading AIDS. The homosexuality and sex abuse have no direct connection.
ex. IQ testing can stigmatize a child permanently, causing more harm than good.