sover(=super)-reign(v. 統治 p. 400)
n. [a monarch; a king, queen, or other supreme ruler.]
ps. reign 是字根 reg == rule 發展出來的唷
adj. [(of power) without limit; highest]
adj. [(of a nation, state, ruler) fully independent and self-governing;not controlled by outside forces]
ex. Israel was the only developed country whose sovereign credit rating was raised during that time. (Reuters Aug 9, 2013 )
wiki: Sovereignty is the quality of having independent authority over a geographic area, such as a territory.
其義為from below，有"turning upward, upward, up to"往上的衍生義。
suggest [ from sub "up" + gerere "bring, carry.]
suspect [ from sub "up to" + specere "to look at]
sur- =above在什麼之上 [通常不會與r連用，也就說沒有surr~，以避免跟sub+r~混淆]
sover-(少) [在Vulgar Latin，而產生的拼寫上的變化]
v. /so/ like go [to scatter (seed) over land, earth, etc., for growth; to plant.]
ex. to Sow the seed in a warm place.
n. /sau/ like cow [an adult female swine.]
n. [Trademark. a brand of quick-drying, plasterlike material for patching plasterwork.]
How to Spackle Walls
n. [length of time over which sth lasts or extends from beginning to end]
ex. the span of life 一生的時間
ex. The batteries had a life span of six hours.
v. [ to extend over]
ex. His professional career spanned 16 years.
ex. Her life spanned almost the whole of the 19th century. 她的一生幾乎經曆了整個19世紀.
ex. a remarkable man whose interests spanned almost every aspect of nature.
v.打...的屁股 [to strike (a person, usually a child) with the open hand, a slipper, etc., especially on the buttocks, as in punishment.]
ps. 像是處罰小孩子不乖的時候，打屁屁的動作就是to spank. 另外綜藝節目中有會有些spanking的動作，像是拿紙扇打屁股來作為處罰，當然在AV中也有spank的情趣動作囉。
adj.剩餘的; 備用的 [in addition to what is usu needed or used; kept in reserve for use when needed]
ex. a spare tire, a spare desk.
adj. [(of time) for leisure; free; unoccupied]
ex. He paints in his spare time.
ex. In his spare time he volunteered as a reserve police officer for the city.
v. [to refrain from hurting, harming or destroying (sb/sth); show mercy to]
ex. The woodman spared a few trees. 伐木工人留下了幾棵樹沒砍掉.
ex. We have lost everything, but thank God, our lives have been spared.
v.節約 [to use economically or frugally; refrain from using up or wasting]
adj. [economical or frugal (with)]
ex. a sparing father and a spending son.
ex. be sparing in the use of heat and light.
adj. [merciful or lenient]
ps. A skin-sparing mastectomy(保留皮膚的乳房切除手術), also known as breast-conserving surgery, is a way to treat cancer, and save the breast skin. In so doing it causes much less scarring than a traditional mastectomy. The skin-sparing procedure removes cancerous breast tissue through a small incision usually around the areola area of the nipple. The surgeon leaves most of the breast skin, creating a natural skin envelope, or pocket, that is filled with a breast implant or with the patient’s own tissue from another part of her body. The skin-sparing technique significantly improves the cosmetic outcome and gives the best option for reconstruction.
ps. mastectomy (mæˈstɛktəmɪ)
ps. Angelina Jolie
n. [a small fragment of a burning substance thrown out by burning material or by friction ]
ps. electric spark : the light produced by a sudden discontinuous discharge of electricity through air or another dielectric.
ex. What was it that sparked your interest in motoring?