sovereign   /'savrɪn/

sover(=super)-reign(v. 統治 p. 400

n. [a monarch; a king, queen, or other supreme ruler.]

  ps. reign 是字根 reg == rule 發展出來的唷


adj.  [(of power) without limit; highest]

adj. [(of a nation, state, ruler) fully independent and self-governing;not controlled by outside forces]

   ex. Israel was the only developed country whose sovereign credit rating was raised during that time. (Reuters Aug 9, 2013 )








sovereignty    /'savrɪntɪ/


n.主權 (完整獨立而不被外界的力量控制的統治權)

  wiki: Sovereignty is the quality of having independent authority over a geographic area, such as a territory.




字首sub- 的簡介:

sub-其主要的意思為under、below、beneath 在什麼之下。


其義為from below,有"turning upward, upward, up to"往上的衍生義。



suggest  [ from sub "up" + gerere "bring, carry.]

suspect  [ from sub "up to" + specere "to look at]




super-  =above在什麼之上

sur-     =above在什麼之上 [通常不會與r連用,也就說沒有surr~,以避免跟sub+r~混淆]


sover-(少)  [在Vulgar Latin,而產生的拼寫上的變化]








v. /so/ like go [to scatter (seed) over land, earth, etc., for growth; to plant.]

  ex. to Sow the seed in a warm place.

n. /sau/ like cow [an adult female swine.]










spackle  (spæk′əl)

n. [Trademark. a brand of quick-drying, plasterlike material for patching plasterwork.]


How to Spackle Walls










n. [length of time over which sth lasts or extends from beginning to end]

  ex. the span of life 一生的時間

  ex. The batteries had a life span of six hours.

v. [ to extend over]

  ex. His professional career spanned 16 years.

  ex. Her life spanned almost the whole of the 19th century. 她的一生幾乎經曆了整個19世紀.

  ex. a remarkable man whose interests spanned almost every aspect of nature.










v.打...的屁股 [to strike (a person, usually a child) with the open hand, a slipper, etc., especially on the buttocks, as in punishment.]

   ps. 像是處罰小孩子不乖的時候,打屁屁的動作就是to spank. 另外綜藝節目中有會有些spanking的動作,像是拿紙扇打屁股來作為處罰,當然在AV中也有spank的情趣動作囉。











adj.剩餘的; 備用的 [in addition to what is usu needed or used; kept in reserve for use when needed]

  ex. a spare tire, a spare desk.

  ps. 直接當名詞的時候,就指的是像汽車備用零件之類的東西。


adj. [(of time) for leisure; free; unoccupied]

  ex. He paints in his spare time.

  ex. In his spare time he volunteered as a reserve police officer for the city.


v. [to refrain from hurting, harming or destroying (sb/sth); show mercy to]

  ex. The woodman spared a few trees. 伐木工人留下了幾棵樹沒砍掉.

  ex. We have lost everything, but thank God, our lives have been spared.


v.節約 [to use economically or frugally; refrain from using up or wasting]













adj. [economical or frugal (with)]

  ex. a sparing father and a spending son.

  ex. be sparing in the use of heat and light.

adj. [merciful or lenient]


ps. A skin-sparing mastectomy(保留皮膚的乳房切除手術), also known as breast-conserving surgery, is a way to treat cancer, and save the breast skin. In so doing it causes much less scarring than a traditional mastectomy. The skin-sparing procedure removes cancerous breast tissue through a small incision usually around the areola area of the nipple. The surgeon leaves most of the breast skin, creating a natural skin envelope, or pocket, that is filled with a breast implant or with the patient’s own tissue from another part of her body. The skin-sparing technique significantly improves the cosmetic outcome and gives the best option for reconstruction.

ps. mastectomy   (mæˈstɛktəmɪ)


ps. Angelina Jolie








n. [a small fragment of a burning substance thrown out by burning material or by friction ]

  ps. 煙火用的仙女棒,就叫做sparker.

  ps. electric spark : the light produced by a sudden discontinuous discharge of electricity through air or another dielectric.


v. 引發某事

  ex. What was it that sparked your interest in motoring?







sparring adj.







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