Oh Gosh! 變成Dr. 了, 8/1 開始PostDoc 工作。







v.提議 [ offer or put forward (sth) for consideration]

  ex. to propose an early start

  ex. to propose a four-day school week

  ps. 提名某人 : to propose someone for an elected office or official post.


  ex. to propose marriage









n. [action of suggesting or putting forward; thing that is suggested; plan or scheme]

  ex. a marriage proposal, a business proposal

  ex. 作研究也要寫proposal!








n.建議: [thing that is proposed, esp in business; suggestion]

  ex. business proposition.

  ps.在美國有特別的用法:ex. California Proposition 8,  from wiki: Proposition 8 was a ballot proposition and constitutional amendment passed in the November 2008 state elections. The measure added a new provision, Section 7.5 of the Declaration of Rights, to the California Constitution, which provides that "only marriage between a man and a woman is valid or recognized in California."


  from wiki: 命題是指一個判斷(陳述)的語義(實際表達的概念),這個概念是可以被定義並觀察的現象。命題不是指判斷(陳述)本身。當相異判斷(陳述)具有相同語義的時候,他們表達相同的命題。例如,雪是白的(漢語)和 Snow is white(英語)是相異的判斷(陳述),但它們表達的命題是相同的。

n. [a request for sexual intercourse, esp in a direct and offensive way]

ps. if you describe something such as a task or an activity as, for example, a difficult proposition or an attractive proposition, you mean that it is difficult or pleasant to do.








adj.適當的 [that fits, belongs or is suitable; fitting or appropriate]

  ex. clothes proper for the occasion 適於那種場合的衣服



字源:from L. proprius "one's own, particular to itself," from pro privo "for the individual."

Proper name "belonging to or relating to the person or thing in question," is from late 13c.

Meaning "socially appropriate" is first recorded 1704.


proper adj.適當的
property n.財產, 性質
proper-ietary adj. 所有權的
proper-iety n.合乎社交禮節的舉止





proprietary    (prəˈpraɪətərɪ)

proper-ietary  我的拆法

adj.  [manufactured and sold by a particular firm, usu under patent]

  ex. Xerox' is a proprietary name and may not be used by other makers of photocopiers.

  ex. proprietary drugs, proprietary software

adj. [of or relating to an owner or ownership]

  ex. 所有權: proprietary right


字源:from L. proprietas "owner"







propriety  (prəˈpraɪətɪ)


n.合乎社交禮節的舉止  [state of being correct in one's social or moral behavior]


字源:from L. proprietatem (nom. proprietas) "appropriateness," also "ownership" . Meaning "fitness, appropriateness" is attested from 1615; sense of "conformity to good manners" is from 1782.









n. [the action or process of propelling]


ps. = propel






n.散文 [a literary medium distinguished from poetry especially by its greater irregularity and variety of rhythm and its closer correspondence to the patterns of everyday speech ]

  ps. Novels, essays, short stories, and works of criticism are examples of prose.

  <> poetry

  wiki : Prose is the most typical form of written language, applying ordinary grammatical structure and natural flow of speech rather than rhythmic structure (as in traditional poetry). While there are critical debates on the construction of prose, its simplicity and loosely defined structure has led to its adoption for the majority of spoken dialogue, factual discourse as well as topical and fictional writing.



examples from http://www.writing.com/main/view_item/item_id/662088-Prose-vs-Poetry

Prose version:

         A woman stands on a mountain top with the cold seeping into her body. She looks on the valley below as the wind whips around her. She cannot leave to go to the peaceful beauty below.
         In the valley, the sun shines from behind the clouds causing flowers to bloom. A breeze sends quivers through the leaves of trees. The water gurgles in a brook. All the woman can do is cry.



Poetry version

            The Woman on the Peak

         The woman stands upon the barren peak,
         Gazing down on the world beneath.
         The lonely chill seeps from the ground
         Into her feet, spreading, upward bound.
         The angry wind whistles ‘round her head,
         Whipping her hair into streaming snakes,
         While she watches, wishes, weakly wails.

         Beyond the mountain, sunshine peeks,
         Teasing flowers to survive and thrive.
         The breeze whispers through the leaves,
         Causing gentle quivers to sway the trees.
         Laughter gurgles as the splashing brook
         Playfully tumbles over rugged rocks,
         While the woman above can only grieve.






prosaic    (prəʊˈzeɪɪk)



adj.無想像力的, 平庸的 [commonplace or dull; matter-of-fact or unimaginative]

  ex. her prosaic life as a housewife.









v. [to state officially that (sth) is dangerous or forbidden]

  ex. The sale of narcotics is proscribed by law.

  ps. If something is proscribed by people in authority, the existence or the use of that thing is forbidden.


字源:late 14c., "decree of condemnation, outlawry," from L. proscribere "publish in writing"


c.f. prescribe (p.373)

v. [advise or order the use of (esp a medicine, remedy, etc)]






pro-secu(follow)-te   (ps. secu字根可以review p.328)

v.告發某人 [bring a criminal charge (or legal action) against sb in a court of law]

  ex. He was prosecuted for exceeding the speed limit. 他因超速行車而被起訴


prosecute   v.控告 [跟者前面的那人身後說不是]

persecute   v.迫害 [完完全全地跟隨在被害人的後面--->迫害]







n. [the act or process of prosecuting : the institution and continuance of a criminal suit involving the process of pursuing formal charges against an offender to final judgment]

  ex. the prosecution's case

  ex. prosecution witness






proselytize   (ˈprɒsə lɪˌtaɪz)

v. [To proselytize is to try to persuade someone to switch to your religious beliefs or your way of living.] 






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  • 倫大你好~閱讀你的網頁真是受益良多~我想請問教學音檔是否有提供下載??
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    xination 於 2011/08/10 20:23 回覆