n. [Passion is a very strong feeling about something or a strong belief in something. ]

  ex. He spoke with great passion.

  ex. She had a passion for gardening.

n. [Passion is strong sexual feelings towards someone. ]

  ex. having passion for 蘿莉s


字源:,在12世紀時出現的字,from PIE base *pei-  "to hurt",原指 "sufferings of Christ on the Cross,"而後有擴展到" sufferings of martyrs, and suffering generally",到了13世紀才有當做"strong emotion, desire"






adj. [dominated or easily affected by strong feelings]

  ex. a passionate woman 易動感情的女子

adj. [ caused by or showing intense sexual love]

  ex. passionate kiss



這是在15世紀才出現的字,也是就在passion有了"strong emotion"的意思後的200年。








adj. [not active or not participating perceptibly in an activity, organization, etc]

  ex. play a passive role in a marriage.

  ex. passive smoking







n. [a substance made of ground pigment bound with gum, used for making sticks for drawing]




Pastel is an art medium in the form of a stick, consisting of pure powdered pigment and a binder. The pigments used in pastels are the same as those used to produce all colored art media, including oil paints; the binder is of a neutral hue and low saturation.








n.模仿作品, 混成曲 [A dramatic, literary, or musical piece openly imitating the previous works of other artists; a medley of various ingredients]

  <> original work

  ps. pastiche可以指文學作品的一種方式、音樂的形式,它是一種模仿別人的作品的創作方式,有些是為了挖苦,有些也是為了敬仰。比方說,當Arthur Conan Doyle(亞瑟.柯南.道爾)在寫Sherlock Holmes(夏洛克·福爾摩斯)的故事的時候,就很有多的pastiches出現了。




可以review p.306




pasteurize  /pæstəˌraɪz/


v. [to expose (a food, as milk, cheese, yogurt, beer, or wine) to an elevated temperature for a period of time sufficient to destroy certain microorganisms, as those that can produce disease or cause spoilage or undesirable fermentation of food, without radically altering taste or quality.]


from wiki

Pasteurization is a process of heating a food, usually liquid, to a specific temperature for a definite length of time, and then cooling it immediately. This process slows microbial growth in food. The process was named after its creator, French chemist and microbiologist Louis Pasteur. The first pasteurization test was completed by Louis Pasteur and Claude Bernard on April 20, 1864. The process was originally conceived as a way of preventing wine and beer from souring

History of Pasteurization







adj.鄉村生活的, 田園風光的, 牧人的, 田園式的(尤指理想化描述的) [relating to or portraying country life, the countryside or shepherds, esp in an idealized way ]

adj.牧師的, 牧師工作的(尤指對會眾心靈上的指引)[of or relating to a clergyman or his work (esp the spiritual guidance he gives to his congregation)]

  ex. pastoral counselling


Beethoven - Pastoral Symphony 《田園交響曲》- 1st movement






n. [a minister or priest in charge of a church.]



from PIE base *pa-  "to tend, keep, pasture, feed, guard" (see food).

mid-13c., "shepherd," also "spiritual guide, shepherd of souls"

Christ's telling Peter to shepherd his sheep and was appointing him as a pastor.









n. [a dough of flour, water, shortening, and sometimes other ingredients]


字源:1442, "food made with paste," not originally limited to sweets, from M.E. paste  (see paste (n.))




n. [a piece of material used to mend a garment or to make patchwork, a sewn-on pocket]

 ex. a jacket with leather patches on the elbows 

n. [a small piece, area etc]


ps. Patch (computing), fix for a software program

quick review ...p.154


v.派遣;快遞 [to send off or away with speed]

  ex. He dispatched an experienced worker to repair the damage.


  ex. He dispatched the job in three days' time




聯想:dis + patch 派人快去修補







n. 專利權 [official document giving the holder the sole right to make, use or sell an invention and preventing others from imitating]

  ps. A patent  is a set of exclusive rights granted by a state (national government) to an inventor or their assignee for a limited period of time in exchange for a public disclosure of an invention. Typically, however, a patent application must include one or more claims defining the invention which must be new, non-obvious, and useful or industrially applicable. In many countries, certain subject areas are excluded from patents, such as business methods and mental acts.

adj. 顯著的 [obvious; evident]

  ex. It was patent to anyone that she disliked the idea. 誰都知道她不喜歡那個主意.


The word patent originates from the Latin patere, which means "to lay open" (i.e., to make available for public inspection), and more directly as a shortened version of the term letters patent, which originally denoted an open for public reading royal decree granting exclusive rights to a person.


In 500 BC, in the Greek city of Sybaris (located in what is now southern Italy), "encouragement was held out to all who should discover any new refinement in luxury, the profits arising from which were secured to the inventor by patent for the space of a year."






n. [any disease-producing agent, esp. a virus, bacterium, or other microorganism.]

  ps.pathogen is a biological agent that causes disease to its host






n. [the science or the study of the origin, nature, and course of diseases.]

   ex. Plant pathology (also phytopathology) is the scientific study of plant diseases caused by pathogens (infectious diseases) and environmental conditions (physiological factors).



adj. [of or pertaining to pathology.]

adj. [unreasonable]






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