Oh Gosh! 變成Dr. 了, 8/1 開始PostDoc 工作。
別寄SOP過來了阿...真的沒時間改

目前日期文章:200808 (28)

瀏覽方式: 標題列表 簡短摘要

recently, for preparing the GRE Physics subject,


I reviewed the textbooks.


I got some frustrated.


Because I forget many of them,


and it takes time to recover, while I just have 2 months left.

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哎呀~~我覺得有時候我會太貪心,要求的很高


要謹慎阿


像今天複習物理


想說想來自己來證證看某一個optional的概念


花了好久...卻得不出


而延遲了好多進度


 


我應該專注於我該做的事


別的東西先暫時放下


每件事都顧及是不可能的


加油!!!!






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     Still Fighting the Plague

    The plague is most famous for killing tens of millions of people all over Europe in the 1300s. Plague is caused by the bacteria Yersinia pestis. And the disease still exists in pockets around the world. In fact, because it can be transmitted through the air, the government considers the plague a Category A bioterrorism agent and a serious potential threat.


     Scientists from the University of Idaho have published a way to fight back at the plague in the journal Microbiology. Bacteria that cause the disease get past our defenses by dampening the immune system and actually preventing it from responding. But researchers have developed molecules that mimic a lipid on the bacterial surface. These molecules make the immune response spring back to life.

     Scientists tested a nasal spray with two such molecules on mice infected with the plague. The spray enlivened the animals' immune systems and made antibiotics much more effective. The spray and antibiotic combination helped more mice live through the plague compared with a control group. Despite this advance, one should still avoid Yersinia pestis like, well, the plague.


大意:

科學家發現可以更有效對抗瘟疫的抗體,可防止恐怖主義的生物攻擊





bioterrorism n.生物恐怖主義

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大意:科學家利用google earth的衛星照片,發現牛傾向指向南北方




Cows Tend to Face North-South

Don't be fooled by those big bovine eyes and the mouth slowly chewing cud—cows have a magnetic personality. At least that's the claim made by German researchers in the August 26th issue of the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. Using Google Earth images, the scientists looked down on over 8,000 cattle around the world. And, when grazing or resting, cows tended to face either magnetic north or south.

The researchers combined field observations with the satellite data and discovered that herds of both deer and cattle tend to align themselves north-south. Factors like wind and the angle of the sun had little bearing on how the animals stood. More often than not, like needles of a compass, heads swiveled northward. While it's been known that birds, bees and fish use the earth's magnetic fields for orientation, this study is the first to point to a magnetic sense in large mammals. The scientists speculate that this behavior may allow the animals to stay spatially oriented. In case danger lurks and a cow needs to make any sudden…moos.







cud n.反芻的食物


have bearing on v phr.與什麼有關

swivel
  v.旋轉  n.轉環




spatially adv.空間上的
=space + ial(形容尾) +ly
(副詞尾)



 

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字典工具: firefox 套件 backword

速讀工具: firefox 套件 RSVP reader

 


 

我想很多人都會有這樣的經驗,在reading到一半遇到不會的單字
就會用翻譯機,或是用網路辭典查一下
或者利用Dr. eye之類的軟體

但是backword這個套件,不僅也有字典功能
而且更好用,他可以幫你複習單字呢

1.下載處

 


2.按裝完,在右下腳會出現一個綠色的十字

 

3.對者右下腳的綠色十字
按左鍵可以 turn on/off 字典功能
 按右鍵可以設定功能

 


4.預設是顯示簡體的,改成繁體即可

 


5.使用範例

把游標放在字上一會兒後,它就會顯示翻譯了

你可以按十字標示把這個字加入自己的生字簿中,
他加入的時候也會順便把這一句,順便收入進去唷

 

6.要看自己的生字簿只要按B的圖示就可以了
再生字簿中點選單字,還可以聽發音唷

 


 

接下來要介紹的是速讀工具

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Fruit Juices Block Some Drugs

You've no doubt heard that grapefruit juice can greatly increase the effects of some drugs. Even to a dangerous degree. Pharmacologist David Bailey made that discovery almost 20 years ago. A substance in the juice blocks an enzyme that breaks down the drugs. Now Bailey's back with a fresh finding—grapefruit juice, orange juice, apple juice and other fruit juices can also severely decrease the absorption of certain drugs. He announced this discovery August 19th at the national meeting of the American Chemical Society in Philadelphia.

Some of the drugs that have their dosages effectively decreased by various juices include medications that fight heart disease, infection and even the rejection of transplants. Key ingredients in the juices appear to block a molecule that carries drugs from the small intestine into the bloodstream. So a lot of the medication gets flushed out without ever reaching its target. Bailey says, "This is just the tip of the iceberg.  I'm sure we'll find more and more drugs that are affected this way."  So when taking medications, a sip of H2O is probably the way to go.


 


大意:果汁會阻礙藥物的效能




dosage n.藥的劑量
dose( n.藥物等的一劑) + age

iceberg n.冰山
ice + berg (荷蘭語的mountain)







 

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1918 Flu Antibodies Alive and Well


Some people never forget a face. Others never forget a flu. Even if they were infected more than 90 years ago. A team of American scientists studied 32 people who survived the 1918 flu epidemic. That virus, also called the Spanish flu, killed an estimated 20 to 100 million people worldwide.


Of course many more survived, and some are still around today. The scientists tracked them down and took a small sample of their blood. And they found that all 32 people they tested still had circulating antibodies that could recognize the 1918 flu strain. What's even more remarkable is that these immune molecules still work. Injecting the antibodies into mice protected the animals from experimental infection with the virus. The results were published online in the journal Nature on August 13th.


The scientists say that these elder antibodies could guide the way to new therapies to ward off flu should a virus similar to the 1918 strain arise. In the meantime, I guess you can be thankful that as your joints grow creaky and your vision fades, at least your immune system stays on its feet.


大意:
科學家發現,在1918年的flu antibodies still work




ward off  v.避開
ward當動詞的時候是避開的意思




creaky  adj.嘰嘰嘎嘎的
creak v.發出咯吱咯吱聲


 







 

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在ptt 棒球版
賭盤封盤的的前夕
把全部的P幣賭上韓國隊

呼~最後九局下守下來真是令我太爽了
1:2.7的賠率壓


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最近看棒球,看的快吐血

突然在想,到底什麼樣的贏法我最能接受呢?

(與自己強的對抗)
1.對手實力比我方強,但鏖戰多時,最後輸了
爽度:75%
理由:已經發揮自己完全的實力,代表自己已經成功


2.對手實力比我方強,但鏖戰多時,最後告運氣贏了
爽度:70%
理由:雖勝利,但總覺得不是自己的努力得來的


3.對手實力比我方強,但鏖戰多時,最後告爆氣(實力+20%)贏了
爽度:100%
理由:不但贏球,還激發淺能


4.對手實力比我方強,但鏖戰多時,最後爆氣(實力+20%)還是輸了
爽度:85%
理由:輸了,但有極大的潛能被開發




(與自己弱的對抗)
5.對手比我方弱,跟對手打,很順利的贏了
爽度:75%
理由:發揮自己正常實力,代表自己已經成功


6.對手比我方弱,對手爆氣,纏鬥多時,終於贏了
爽度:60%
理由:被對手爆氣,會覺得自己是不是變弱了


7.對手比我方弱,對手爆氣,纏鬥多時,最後輸了
爽度:0%
理由:會覺得自己原本的努力都白費了


8.對手比我方弱,對手爆氣,纏鬥多時,最後因運氣輸了
爽度:-100%
理由:完全不能接受這種失敗


(與自己差不多的對抗)
9.實力與對手差不多,順利的贏了
爽度:80%
理由:發揮自己正常實力,加上心理面戰勝自己


10.實力與對手差不多,很辛苦地贏了
爽度:95%
理由:表現出自己極限的能力,加上心理面戰勝自己


11.實力與對手差不多,纏鬥多時,結果輸了
爽度:50%
理由:覺得自己應該有贏的機會,結果輸了


12.實力與對手差不多,纏鬥多時,結果因運氣輸了
爽度:0%
理由:有發會自己原有的實力,但是勝負卻不全由努力決定


結論:
跟比自己強的打,會期待自己能發揮超水準演出,
輸了也不會很失落,贏了則超爽,外加大進步

跟比自己差不多的對手打,
輸了會有點失落,贏了則是很爽外,加進步

跟比自己弱的對手打
輸了會很不爽,贏了也沒什麼感覺

如果贏有點運氣成分的話,會減少爽度的

所以要快樂的話,多多挑戰比自己強的人

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看到第一局
陽建福投到滿壘,一出局
李大浩打個軟軟的三遊滾地球....結果穿了出去
回傳球,捕手葉君章又沒接到
馬上丟兩分,而且危機持續中
暈@@

剛剛又偷看了一下
又被HR╰(‵皿′*)╯
一局上 7:0

中華隊這次真此的慘了

防守阿...怎麼會這樣~~
不會被Call Game吧

不看了啦~~
幹嘛要自己虐待自己呢 >皿<
(決定只看文字轉播..)





剛剛看文字轉播
恰恰撲一壘...好感動
士氣為之一轉
Ya, 馬上得兩分

決定在來看轉播




3局下

潘武雄 左外野 被接殺,一出局

羅國輝 (有跟球,但都跟得太近來) 觸身上一壘

彭政閔 上壘率.447 一壘安打 ya,12壘有人,一壘的李大浩腰彎不下來 哈哈

石志偉 韓捕手很聰明,先取得兩好球(曾公講解的很好,錢公很緊張!!),小頭很黏,凹到保送,給他拍拍手,韓投手傻眼

蔣智賢 媽的,雙殺!!!  Change




4局上
鄭根宇 一安,一壘由人
金賢珠 K,一出局
李承燁,內野飛球,兩出局
李大浩,打擊率 . 400+ 上壘率.467 好強,左外野飛球,三出局change

XD 要是倪福德是這場先發應該不至於輸這麼多




5局下
林智盛 內野滾,一出局
葉君璋 又安打了,一安
林哲瑄 (一直牽制葉君璋) 被K,領好多K了唷
張建銘 打得不錯,但被韓二壘手(鄭根宇) nice play




6局上
李晉暎 K, 倪福德強!
江明浩 三壘車布邊,三壘手沒守備機會,二壘有人
金敏宰 三壘滾,傳一壘,OUT,三壘有人,兩出局
高庸明 K

倪福德好投





XD..好累唷 專心看球去
         





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之前因雨停賽,這場接著上次沒打完的部分開始打

韓國挾者昨晚勝日本的氣勢

中國隊又是一場硬的不得了的戰爭




不過...我有點被中國隊感動了
居然跟韓國隊鏖戰到第十一局,
逼著韓國隊打突破僵局制

要不是中國高飛犧牲打,3壘跑者早跑了些
勝負可能還不一定呢
(畢竟那實在太傷士氣了)

最後滿壘,被李承燁打出再見安打,1:0得勝

但你不得不為中國隊喝采
他們面對的對手可是
昨晚從軟鷹的王牌和田毅的手中打出全壘打、
用鬼魅般的戰術把日本隊精練防守完全打亂、
各投手動輒球速145+
強大的韓國隊

還能跟韓國隊拼戰到11局
完全是靠著團隊的相互扶持,一直苦撐下去
己使最後的結果是輸球
我想中國隊的球員們已經獲得大家的尊敬了

我總覺得我在看一部熱血的棒球漫畫
一個教練來到一個積年不振的棒球隊
球員們突然間看到希望,開始拚命的練球,想登上甲子園
他們一次又一次碰到比他們強許多的傳統強隊
但靠者不放棄的韌性死咬得比賽
逼者強隊派上最強的投手
....
雖然結局有輸有贏
但他們的汗水已經幻化成果實了




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奧運的籃球與NBA的規則是不太一樣的


NBA的籃下油漆區是長方形的,而且比較小
有3秒違例,就是說進攻方沒持球不能待在油漆區內太久

奧運就沒有這樣啦,油漆區是梯形的
沒有3秒違例,進攻方想在籃下擠就在籃下擠
不過防守方也會在籃下擠
事實上這就要考驗後衛的傳球能力了
因為國際賽的長人特多,跟在NBA是不一樣的
像中國隊的姚明,230公分
要能很舒服的在籃下接到球,真是一件很難的事

這規則的差異,我想會影響的還有切入的難易度
在NBA防守方不能一直待在禁區,
但國際賽可以,
你想,你要切前,就一大堆人堵在籃下了,
一點也不好切阿




國際賽中三分線是比較短的
NBA的三分線多1公尺
這樣的差異,會使三分球更加有威力
使得身材矮小但三分神準的球員,
也能生存下去




國際賽的球場兩翼較小
NBA15.24米;FIBA為15米

加上三分線又比較短
其實進攻區域是小很多的
所以在防守上,很容易被包夾
而且國際賽的的防守多打區域防守
想要切入灌籃是比較難的事
但相對而言兩翼的外線卻是更好的得分武器
因此戰術配合比個人單切的更重要啦




NBA打48分鍾,6犯,可7次暫停
國際賽打40分鍾,5犯,可5次暫停

整體而言,國際賽是比較允許身體對抗的,因為畢竟犯規數少
NBA在空中的對抗是對進攻方比較有利的
我看國際賽中,球員切入被撞的很慘可是要不到犯規
要是在NBA早就逼逼聲不斷了




我自己覺得
NBA因為是商業性的,要求比賽好看
會有較多有利攻擊方的規定
也會有利切入灌籃等
減少外圍射籃

而國際賽中的規定
就像我們熟悉的灌籃高手 一樣吧
商業娛樂性少了點,但是一樣熱血!!!





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今天晚上可精彩啦
好多我想看的

桌球: 馬琳 VS吳?? (韓國)
超精彩的,連續兩盤打到duce, 目前2:2
馬琳後來居上,氣勢正旺
但韓國佬,人高手長,馬上扳回一球
韓國佬今天直線失誤了好幾球,
都是在連續斜線對殺想換直線結果一直失誤

棒球: 日本VS 韓國 (日本收視率 29%!!)
新井前半局打出兩分砲
XD...下半局 和田毅被轟兩分砲
和田毅可是超強的耶(實況野球中超難打的....)
然後換上的是中日龍的王牌--川上

籃球: 西班牙VS美國夢8 !!!!!!

還有田徑的賽事呢!!!

根本是太幸福了,這麼多精彩的live都可以在hichannel看
而且完全沒有廣告

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Air Fresheners' Unlisted Ingredients

Laundry detergents and
air fresheners have long promised
to keep your house and clothes smelling sunshine fresh and rain shower clean.

But what they haven't said is what exactly you're sniffing
when you
snuggle up in your just-washed sheets.

After hearing from people who said strong scents made them sick,
University of Washington researcher Anne Steinemann
scratched the surface and found almost a hundred chemicals
that weren't listed on the labels.

According to her report in the journal Environmental Impact Assessment Review,
plug-in air fresheners, scented sprays, dryer sheets and detergents
all contained a mixture of volatile organic compounds.

Since manufacturers aren't required to list their ingredients
for such consumer products,
the boxes only admitted to containing a "mixture of perfume oils."

But five out of the six products
Steinemann tested emitted one or more
so-called hazardous air pollutants,
which are carcinogens determined to have no safe exposure level by the EPA.

While the study did not test for any human health risk from exposure to these chemicals,
Steinemenn says the next time the air in the house smells stale,
maybe you just open a window.


大意:
科學家發現在洗衣精、空氣
清香劑中有許多成分為被標明
但而不能知道這些成分對人體有沒有害






air freshener n.空氣清香劑

freshener = fresh + en + er




snuggle  v.偎依

=snug(本身就是偎依的意思) + -le(有小的意思)

 




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今日看對古巴之戰
有好幾球不是被超美技沒收,就是球直接找手套
最負運的應該就是羅國輝
明明狀況很好,
但......>皿<

蔣智賢....黑了 應該很難翻回來了


我怎麼覺得兄弟象的內野防守比中華隊好阿

這次的先發
陳偉殷
許文雄(根本是爆氣!!)
潘威倫
李振昌
表現的超優的

怎麼~~中繼如此悽慘阿
可憐的倪福德也是很負運阿

真的太衰了啦
中華隊這次沒有拜拜唷??


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8/15
奧運棒球:中華隊輸給中國隊 
真是不可思議 7:8

打到第八局下 2:3(大陸後攻,中華隊落後)
我原本看到2:0的時候
直覺應該可以很輕鬆的拿下,就不看了
然後轉回來再看的時候
居然不知為何在八局下居然連丟3分,
我看看投手還是羅嘉仁應該很穩才對阿!
結果特地去查了一下NEWS

轉錄 nownews
八局下中華隊以2比0領先時,倪福德先被打出投手前反彈球,未接住變成游擊內野安打,之後再保送候鳳連,推出羅嘉仁救援時,先暴投被上到二、三壘,適時三振後,被馮飛打到游擊滾地球失1分,且三壘有人,再被張玉峰中外野安打遭追平。

此時中華隊的士氣大亂,王偉中外野飛球,林哲瑄撲接未成,球落到後方,讓張玉峰一口氣直奔三個壘包回來得分,中華隊從領先到落後1分

九局上羅國輝被保送,潘武雄代打二壘滾地造成跑者出局,二出局林哲瑄被保送後,張建銘左外野彈跳到全壘打牆外的二壘安打,把分數追平。

結果打延長賽
十局雙方都沒得分
十一局打突破僵局,中華隊先攻...結果一分未得
我想慘了,幸好中國隊也一分未得
打到第十二局,情勢大好,攻下四分,7:3
我想應可以慢慢等結束了
XD...最後居然關鍵失誤,被7:8逆轉

轉錄 nownews
九局下羅嘉仁繼續投,三振與本壘後方接殺二出局後被孫嶺峰右外野二壘安打,故意保送候鳳連到一壘,三振解危進入延長賽。

中華隊十局上無人出局郭嚴文左外野安打,林智勝犧牲短打送到二壘,蔣智賢強勁平飛球被二壘手接殺,羅國輝被故意保送,高志綱中外野深遠飛球出局。

陽建福十局下救援,一上來就被馮飛左外野安打,被犧牲短打上到二壘,游擊滾地二出局但三壘有人,以投手前滾地球化解。比賽因此進入突破僵局制,這是奧運棒球賽首次採用突破僵局,也是國際成棒賽的第1次。

十一局上石志偉在二壘、林哲瑄一壘,由張建銘打擊,成功短打送到二、三壘,彭政閔被故意保送成滿壘,郭嚴文打到二壘滾地球形成雙殺打。

十一局下中國一、二壘有人,賈德龍短打到彭政閔前,傳三壘封殺跑者,馮飛二壘高飛必死球,讓王偉二壘後方飛球出局,林哲瑄搶接這一球還跌倒在地。

十二局上由林智勝打擊短打護送進壘,蔣智賢故意保送成滿壘,羅國輝選成保送擠回1分,陳峰民左外野二壘安打打進2分,石志偉右外野安打再下1分,林哲瑄三壘滾地造成石志偉出局,張建銘一壘滾地出局。

十二局下陽建福續投,保送王偉形成滿壘,適時三振李磊,被張洪波左外野安打失1分,右外野飛球製造二出局,卻保送孫嶺峰奉送1分,被候鳳連右外野安打失2分,張建銘回傳球打中蔣智賢都未去撿球,讓中國隊回來得分遭到逆轉敗。



賽後不管是中華隊,還是中國隊都哭了
老實說,跟中國隊打可真不好
一般人大概都認為
贏了是應該,可能還會被批怎麼得分得這麼少
輸了,就全台灣暴動,ptt各大版被棒球文洗版...
全國疑似陷入一片哀痛中(可能跟陳水扁有關吧~~!!)

我倒是覺得
棒球,有實力不一定贏
有幾球中華隊打得很札實,但是就運氣背到極點
雙殺,保送,意外再見失誤...
我還是對中華隊很有信心的
不能以幾個play就否定掉努力
(有名的例子,馮勝賢的九局關鍵失誤,但他可是金手套呢)

我想大家也沒否定中華隊的實力,只是對時運心有不甘吧..


不過,如果以中國隊的角度來看
不得不說拼勁十足
明明知道,每場都是被宰的份,勝算微乎其微
中國的棒球體制差,也不重視棒球
之前跟中華隊交手一次也沒贏過
上次打還被張誌家16K
這些選手你叫他們要怎麼打下去呢

大概就完全憑著熱血,硬者頭皮往前衝吧
(這就台灣的網球、桌球等等較不熱門的運動選手一樣)
(就像盧彥勳擊到世界第六的Andy Murray一樣)
(不知道當時英國人有沒有暴動吧)

當他們打到3:2的時候,
全隊突然意識到他們有機會能贏,贏得第一勝
中國隊即使是萬年弱隊,也決死拼上一勝,壓力完全落到中華隊上了

在熱身賽的時候,也是看到兄弟象拼上命求勝
逼得不能輸的中華隊再見失誤

中國隊真的是用上所有能用的,而且還爆氣
十二局上,中華隊攻下4分大局,而且上一局又被陽建福壓制
有可能贏嗎?
能贏,沒有中國隊球員敢這麼想的吧
是絕望才對

如果真的放棄了,也就不會有逆轉了
不管是於中國隊,還是中華隊未來的賽事都是一樣的
即使希望如此渺茫,
但我們還是要努力的去追

獎牌並不是唯一的價值,
如果中華隊很努力很努力的比賽,雖然最後一牌未得
我也會被他的精神感動

就像游泳的許志傑 200蝶止於16強
像羽球的謝裕興止於8強
像舉重的楊景翊、王信淵分別是第4名,第7名
雖然都沒得牌
但是卻撼動奪多少人的人心阿

奧運的精神:輸並不可恥,可恥的是沒盡心比賽、放棄、作弊
我們看過很多感人的畫面,
有一幕是在田徑場中,有位選手腳扭到了,
他邊哭邊拖著腳跑完,最後還是由教練扶他走完了
但是全場掌聲如雷,比得金牌還大
這種精神不就是奧運要傳達給世人個概念嗎

中華隊輸中國隊,這絕對不是世界末日
想想昨天日本隊差點就被我們逼死了

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Bees Help Track Criminals


Unless you're talking about killer bees,
it's hard to imagine a situation
in which 「killers」 and 「bees」 would be related.
But it turns out that scientists are using the same mathematical model
to describe the behavior of both bumblebees and human serial killers. 

 

The method, called geographic profiling, was developed by a detective
who was trying to predict where serial killers might live
based on where they commit their crimes.
Believe it or not, murderers operate fairly close to home.
But not too close.
They maintain a kind of kill-free 「buffer zone」 around their actual digs.


A similar pattern of activity seems to hold true for bumblebees
—when they're foraging for food.
Bees tend to avoid stopping at flowers too close to home,
perhaps to reduce the risk of drawing predators,
parasites or nosy scientists to the nest.
And working with the former detective,
scientists in the U.K. found that geographic profiling allowed them
to locate the entrance to a hive based on mapping which flowers the bees visit.
The results appear online in the Journal of the Royal Society Interface.
Repeating such experiments,
with bees or other foraging critters,
could help hone the model for catching criminals.


 


bumblebee n.大黃蜂2


bumble


有   1.v.笨拙地犯錯誤 =bungle or blunder


還有2.v.發出像蜜蜂一樣的聲音


 


   


 


 


critter n.【口】異常動物 (是creature的變形)




大意:科學家想用數學模式研究大黃蜂的行為


以用來預測、追蹤連續殺人犯的行為


 


 


 


 


 


 


 



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Google-Style Rankings for Ecosystems

Since so many species in a food web are interconnected,
the demise of a one can mean extinction for several others that depend on it for food.
Thanks to things like climate change and habitat destruction,
this "bottom-up extinction" has ecologists scrambling to save key species.
Stefano Allesino says they may just want to Google the problem.

Speaking on August 4th at the Ecological Society of America's annual conference,
Allesino outlined a new way to rank the species of an ecosystem.
Google uses a complicated algorithm to rank web pages that best match a query.
Basically, a single webpage ranks low,
but rises in importance if a handful of other pages link to it.
The highest ranked sites have thousands of these well-connected pages linked to them.

Inspired by this system, Allesino's formula gives importance to a species if it supplies food to another.
And, if that species serves as food for several organisms,
it climbs up the rankings.
Higher ranked species, says Allesino, should become the focus of conservation efforts.
And that means there's finally a perk to being the foundation of the food web.






perk n.【口】津貼;額外補貼 =perquisite

大意:
生物學家想傚法Google用來排名網站的方法
來排名生物在環境中的重要性







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大意:
辣椒在蟲多的地方會比較辣,
因為要保護辣椒不被蟲吃。



Pepper Heat Battles Bugs


Some peppers have a mild, fresh flavor. But others burn your lips and leave a lingering, numbing kick. If you enjoy that tingling thrill, you might want to say thanks. But not to the peppers themselves—to bugs. Peppers are tasty so they'll be eaten and have their seeds dispersed. But the snacker has to be the right creature—which the peppers need to be birds. Some insects also like to munch peppers, and they may puncture the skin. The wound leaves an opening for a microbial fungus. The fungus wriggles inside and snacks on the seeds, destroying them.

Researchers from the U.S. and Bolivia tested whether a pepper's heat offers it protection. They published August 11th in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. First, they collected chilies from seven populations of the same pepper species over a thousand-mile area. Then they counted insect-induced scars and tested pepper heat. In regions with lots of insects, and a greater risk of death by microbe, plants tended to be much hotter. And the hot chemicals, called capsaicinonids, slow microbial growth. Birds can't sense capsaicin. So the hot peppers kill bugs, and still attract birds. And many humans, too.

生字
wriggle  v.蠕動;扭動;蜿蜒而行






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  • Aug 10 Sun 2008 09:25
  • 老狗

我家有隻老狗
他的名字叫做皮皮
據我媽媽說他是在民國82年的時候來我家的
現在15歲多了

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